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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51-54

Review on Druti Kalpana with special reference to Gandhaka Druti

Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission28-Aug-2020
Date of Decision20-Jan-2021
Date of Acceptance26-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication26-Mar-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dev Raj Kshetri
PG Agnivesh Boys' Hostel, Jorawarsingh Gate, Amer Road, Jaipur - 302 002, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_29_20

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Background: Dehavada and Lohavada are the two major aims of Rasashastra. Parada Samskara is essential for both Vada. Many herbs, minerals, instruments, and preparations are needed for processing Parada. Drutis are one of such essential dosage form, along with its therapeutic and other utilities. Druti Kalpana are the processes of converting metals, gemstones and minerals in a liquefied state with the help of Agni samskar and addition of few herbal drugs, Ksharas, etc. Among many Druti Kalpana, Gandhaka Druti is a well-known preparation. Different classical texts have described different methods for preparing it. To ascertain difference between them and to come out with a brief conclusion this review work has been made. Data Source: Classical texts of Rasashastra, various published research works on the topic and valuable dissertations were also referred for this review article. Review Methods: An extensive search of literature was done to collect scattered materials on Druti Kalpana under an umbrella. Advices were taken from the professors of Rasashastra for the review of literature and their correct understanding. Result and Conclusion: Detailed review on Druti and Gandhaka Druti has been made. Comparisions on different methods of Gandhaka Druti preparation and the best method for high yield was found. Depending on the uses Variations in themethod of Gandhaka Druti preparation was found.

Keywords: Druti Kalpana, Gandhaka Druti, Rasashastra, Samskar

How to cite this article:
Kshetri DR, Meena MP, Kumar S. Review on Druti Kalpana with special reference to Gandhaka Druti. J Ayurveda 2021;15:51-4

How to cite this URL:
Kshetri DR, Meena MP, Kumar S. Review on Druti Kalpana with special reference to Gandhaka Druti. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Feb 6];15:51-4. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/1/51/311916

  Introduction Top

Rasashastra has a special emphasis on mercury and mineral origin drugs and their pharmaceutical processing techniques. Among them Drutis occupies as an important formulation. “Druti” is derived from the root “Dru-Kitan” means Drutatva (Liquification).[1] It is an important pharmaceutical process of Rasashastra in which metal/minerals are converted into stable liquefied state.[2] It is a popular organo-mineral preparation used for Parada samskaras and Therapeutics. Classical texts of Rasashastra have mentioned many Druti Yogas. However, details of their preparations are not found. It is also said that Druti preparation is difficult without the grace of Lord Shiva.

Gandhaka stands next to Parad in Rasashastra. The use of Gandhaka for various mercurial formulations can be observed. It is also used internally as well as externally as a medicine. Gandhaka Druti is an important Druti Kalpana where the Sulfur is converted into stable liquefied state with the help of different herbs, minerals and heat. It is indicated for various ailments such as Kasa, Pandu, Kshudra Kusthas[3] and also to enhance health. There are a number of methods for preparing Gandhaka Druti which needs to be addressed.

  Materials and Methods Top

Different classical texts of Rasashastra were referred to gather information about Druti and Gandhaka Druti preparations. Previous publications on related topic in different Journals and electronic media were also searched. Relevant information on Druti, its features, types, methods of preparation along with a history of Gandhaka Druti and different methods of preparations are collected.

  Observations and Results Top

Druti Kalpana are the processes which converts hard and dense metals and minerals into liquefied state after processing with specific herbs and intense heat (RRS 8/84).

Features of Druti: According to the Rasendra Chudamani, properly prepared Druti has following characteristics:[4]

  1. Nirlepatvam: (Nonstickiness)
  2. Drutatvam: (Liquified state)
  3. Tejastvam: (Lustrous)
  4. Laghuta: (Lightness)
  5. Drutam Yogasca sutena: (Mixes quickly with mercury)

Various types of Druti

  1. According to the Varga:[5]

    1. Maharasa Varga: Abhraka Druti, Vaikranta Druti, Svarnamakshika Satwa Druti etc
    2. Uparasa Varga: Gandhaka Druti, Haritala Druti etc
    3. Dhatu Varga: Svarna Druti, Rajata Druti, Loha Druti etc
    4. Ratna Varga: Moti Druti, Vajra Druti etc
    5. Sudha Varga: Shankha Druti.

  2. According to the method of preparation:

    1. Garbha Druti (Internal Liquification): The method of mercurial process in which material given as a Grasa is liquefied within mercury.(RRS.8/81)
    2. Bahya Druti (External Liquification): In this method Abhrakadi satva are melted outside before adding with mercury for Jarana.(RRS.8/82).

  3. According to their uses: [Table 1].
  4. Table 1: Number of Druti formulations on the basis of their uses[8]

    Click here to view

    1. Used for mercurial process, for example, Abhraka Druti, Swarna Druti, Ratna Druti, etc.,
    2. Used for treating diseases, for example, Tamra Druti, Druti Sara Rasa etc
    3. Used for both Purposes, for example, Gandhaka Druti.

Different methods for Druti preparation[6],[7]

  1. Svedana process (Steaming process): In this method, Ratnas are kept in bolus made by paste of drugs and covered with leaf of Betula utilis and suspended in Dolayantra and Svedana is done for 3 nights on high flame
  2. Avapa method (Sprinkling), for example, Svarna, Roupya Druti, Teekshna Loha Druti, etc
  3. Puta method (Incineration), for example, Mukta Druti
  4. Sthapana method (Keeping inside a pit), for example, Abhraka Druti.

History of Gandhaka Druti

First mentioned in Rudra Yamala Tantra for mercurial process[9]

Adopted by Vangasena for therapeutic purposes[10]

Formula was adopted and modified by later texts like R. K. D, R. R. S, etc.

Formula of Gandhaka Druti renamed by R. T. and R. K. D. as Gandhaka Taila.

*R. K. D = Rasa Kama Dhenu, R. R. S = Rasa Ratna Samuccaya, R. T. = Rasatarangini

Gandhaka Druti preparation

With Varti method

Vangasena has mentioned the Varti method for Gandhaka Druti preparation [Table 2]. Rasendra Chudamani also followed Varti method [Table 3]. In this method, the Suddha Gandhaka and Trikatu powder are to be sprinkled over a specified plain cloth and rolled from one end to another to form a Varti (candle). This Varti is tied with a thread and immersed in a beaker containing Tila taila for 3 h. Varti is removed from the beaker, made to hold at the middle and ignited from both the ends. The dropping oil collected from burning Varti is Gandhaka Druti. The similar method is followed by other texts like R. P. S, R. R. S., R. K. D., Ay. Pra., R. T., R. J. N., B. B. R.
Table 2: Plain cloth Varti Method[11]

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Table 3: Plain cloth Varti method[12]

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Without Varti method

  1. With Bhavana Method (R. K. D.): In this method, Gandhaka is given Bhavana of prescribed drugs [Table 4].
  2. Puta paka method (R. R. S.): In this, Gandhaka is given Bhavana of mentioned drugs and subjected to Puta Paka [Table 5]
  3. Krithrimavari method (Ru. Ya. Ta.): In this, Kshara is added in Gandhaka then kept for Sandhana for 21 days [Table 6]
  4. Soxhlet extraction method (Ay. Kha. Vi.): In this, the mentioned drugs are subjected for extraction separately and mixed together in given ratio [Table 7].
Table 4: With Bhavana method[13]

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Table 5: By Putapaka method[14]

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Table 6: By Kritrima Vartinirmana method[15]

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Table 7: Soxhlet extraction method[16]

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  Discussion Top

The review of literatures shows that the Drutis were mostly prepared for Parada Samskaras. In Rasaratna Samuchchaya it is said that Drutis cannot be prepared easily and without the grace of Lord Shiva. There are also variations in preparing the same Druti in different texts. We can melt any drug of mineral origin by heating it to desired temperature, but as soon as the temperature falls, it starts solidifying and finally becomes solid. Hence, melting alone through strong heat cannot be considered as Druti as it should maintain its liquidity even after cooling. The shelf life of Drutis can be increased by storing it in Kusumbha Taila (Safflower oil) as mentioned in R. R. S. 4/77. Unlike Rasendra Cudamani, Asamyogasca Sutena is mentioned in Rasaratna samucchya as a fifth characteristic of Druti which indicates exactly opposite property i.e., not mixing with mercury easily (RRS.8/83). In the properties of Ratna Druti, it is mentioned that besides other properties it possesses the color and lustre of that particular Ratna from which it is made (Ra. Pr. Su. 7/62-65). Further, the classics have mentioned methods of mixing various Drutis.[17]

Purified Gandhaka should be used for the preparation of Gandhaka Druti. There are altogether six methods for preparing Gandhaka Druti mentioned in texts of Rasashastra. They have different ingredients and indications for uses. Most of them are indicated for mercurial processing. However, it is also indicated for diseases such as Pandu, Kasa, Shwasa, Shula, Grahani, Aamvaat, eye disease, and Kustha.

Gandhaka Taila has been mentioned along with Gandhaka Druti in texts such as Rasaratna Samuchchaya, Rasakamdhenu, and Rasa Tarangini. It can also be prepared by Varti as well as without Varti method. In Varti method, the measurement of plain cloth is usually 1 Aratni (Approx. 16.5” × 16.5”). Fire is said to be ignited from both the ends of Varti but in Rasendra Chudamani it is said as Sarvatra Prajwalayet. Plain cloth Varti method by Rasendra Chudamani mentioned in [Table 3] is said to be best method among all, as it gives good yield and ingredients are easily available[18]

  Conclusion Top

Review of the classical Rasashastra literature regarding Druti Kalpanas and Gandhaka Druti has been undertaken in detail. Druti formulations used for fixation of Mercury are more in number than those for clinical application. Gandhaka Druti occupies important place in both Parada samskara and in the treatment of skin diseases as well as for Rasayana purposes. Different methods prescribed in classical texts for the preparation of Gandhaka Druti has also been analyzed in the study. Variations in methods of preparation may be according to their uses in various ailments and processing of mercury.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Kaviraj Umeshchandra Gupta, Vaidyaka Shabda Sindhu. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 1894.  Back to cited text no. 1
Misra S, editor. Acharya Somdeva Rasendra Chudamani. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 1984. p. 59.  Back to cited text no. 2
Dattatreya Anant Kulkarni, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. New Delhi: Meharchand Lakshmana Das Publication; 1998. p. 47.  Back to cited text no. 3
Misra S, editor. Acharya Somdeva Rasendra Chudamani. 1st ed., Ch. 4/100. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 1984.  Back to cited text no. 4
Hussain G, Sharma G. Druti Kalpana – An unpracticed form of ayurveda pharmaceutics. JAPS 2016:3:67-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
Dattatreya Anant Kulkarni, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. New Delhi: Meharchand Lakshmana Das Publication; 1998. p. 64, 96, 84.  Back to cited text no. 6
Gulraj Sharma Mishra, Ayurveda Prakasha. 4th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 1994. p. 301.  Back to cited text no. 7
Rao KS. Standardization of Druti with Special Reference to Gandhaka Druti (dissertation). Jodhpur: University of Rajasthan; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 8
Dwivedi LK. Rudra Yamala Tantra (dissertation). Jodhpur: University of Rajasthan; 1989.  Back to cited text no. 9
Kavivar Shri Shaligramji Valshaya. Vangasen Samhita. Edition. Mumbai: Sri Vaidya Srikrishnadas Prakasan; 1996. Rasayanadhikar/40-42.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kavivar Shri Shaligramji Valshaya. Vangasen Samhita. Edition. Mumbai: Sri Vaidya Srikrishnadas Prakasan; 1996. Rasayanadhikar/34-39.  Back to cited text no. 11
Misra S, editor. Acharya Somdeva Rasendra Chudamani. 1st ed., Ch. 11/16-19. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 1984.  Back to cited text no. 12
Trikamji AY, editor. Vaidhyavara Shree Cudamani, Rasa Kamdhenu. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Publishers; 2nd Edition, 2001. Dhatu Sangra Pada, Uparasadhikar 60-61 ½.  Back to cited text no. 13
Dattatreya Anant Kulkarni, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. Ch. 23/97-103. New Delhi: Meharchand Lakshmana Das Publication; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 14
Tripathi Rudradev. Rudra Yamala Tantra. 1st ed. New Delhi: Ranjan Publication; 1994. (Parada Kalpa)-1/274-T-134.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kaviraj Shri Pratap Singh. Ayurvediya Khanij Vigyan. 1st ed. Kanpur: Prakash Ayurvediya Aushadhalaya and Prakash Pustakalaya; 1931.  Back to cited text no. 16
Dash B. Iatro Chemistry of Ayurveda (Rasashastra). 1st ed., Vol. 9. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company; 1994. p. 439.  Back to cited text no. 17
Saha S, Panwar O, Dubey G, Debbarma P, Kumar S, Rao KS, et al. Pharmaceutical study of Gandhak Druti and Gandhak Taila by different classical techniques. Int J Pharm Chem 2018;9:355-9.  Back to cited text no. 18


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]


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