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ANALYTICAL STUDY: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 189-192

Assessment of effect of Murchana in Ark Taila on the basis of physiochemical parameters


1 Department of RS and BK, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Rishikul Campus, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Kayachikitsa, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Rishikul Campus, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission11-Oct-2020
Date of Decision22-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance17-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication25-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Suman Purohit
Devasish Enclave, Shamshergarh Road, Balawalla, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_229_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Murchana is a specific procedure mentioned in classical texts to remove Ama Dosha increase therapeutic properties and shelf life of Taila. The effect of Murchana Sanskara was studied by preparing two samples of Ark Taila one with Murchana Sanskara and other without Murchana Sanskara. Material and Methods: Pharmaceutical preparation of two samples of Taila, Murchita Ark Taila samples was prepared as mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali and two samples were subjected for physico-chemical parameters- specific gravity, saponification value, iodine value, acid value, viscosity, etc. Result & Conclusion: Murchana process imparts changes in good colour, odour in Taila. After Murchana Sanskara there were increase in saponification value and decrease in viscosity, acid, iodine and peroxide value. Murchana Sanskara enhanced the properties and stability of Ark Taila.

Keywords: Amurchita, Ark Taila, Murchana, physicochemical analysis


How to cite this article:
Purohit S, Shukla S, Yadav Y, Sharma K. Assessment of effect of Murchana in Ark Taila on the basis of physiochemical parameters. J Ayurveda 2021;15:189-92

How to cite this URL:
Purohit S, Shukla S, Yadav Y, Sharma K. Assessment of effect of Murchana in Ark Taila on the basis of physiochemical parameters. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 1];15:189-92. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/3/189/326710




  Introduction Top


Murchana, a specific process, is described in Bhaishajya Ratnavali[1] indicated to remove bad odor and Ama dosha[2] from Sneha which has both pharmaceutical and therapeutically significance. Some researches have shown that more active principles are absorbed into the Sneha if the Paka is done after Murchana and in addition the product becomes easy for digestion. If medicated oil is prepared without Taila Murchana, it may not contain standard qualities and not give the expected results. Further Taila without Murchana is expected to is to become rancid. Therefore, to get standard qualities and expected results, Taila Murchana is required in addition to its physical stability, chemical and therapeutically useful properties in Aushadhi Siddha Taila.

Acharya Sharangdhar had depicted ”Ark Taila”[3] for treating Vicharchika.[4] Sneha Siddha drugs because of the lipid nature of bio-membrane readily permeate into cells. Sneha kalpana[5] is successfully used for treating various disorders of nerve, skin conditions, etc., In the present study, an effort was made to see the effect of Murchana Sanskara on Taila by comparing it with Amurchita Taila on the basis of physio-chemical parameters.

Aims and objectives

  1. To analyze the changes expected after Murchana (processing of Taila)
  2. To compare the analytical results of Amurchita Taila and Murchita Taila.



  Materials and Methods Top


Pharmaceutical study

Collection of raw materials

Raw drugs required for the Murchana of Taila were collected from the Local market of Hardwar [raw drugs authentication certificate is enclosed in [Figure 1]]. Fresh Arka Patra leaves, Haridra and Sarshapa Taila were collected from the local areas. To demonstrate the importance of Taila (Oil) Murchhana for the preparation of medicated Taila (Oil), two samples of Taila (Oil) were prepared. First one was Murchita Ark Taila, i.e., sample A and second one Amurchita Ark Taila, i.e., sample B.
Figure 1: Raw drug authentication certificate

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Preparation of Amurchita Arka Taila

Swarasa was extracted from the fresh Arka Patras by Anukalpa method of Kwath. Haridra Churna was made into Kalka (Paste) by adding sufficient quantity of water. In a stainless steel vessel, 500 ml of Sarshapa Taila was taken and subjected to mild heat. Then, 125 g of Haridra Kalka and 2 L of Arka Patra Swarasa and 2 L of water were added to it. The mixture was stirred continuously to avoid sticking of contents to the bottom of the vessel to prevent burning of kalka. Heating was carried out for 6 h till the Sneha siddhi lakshanas[6] (feature of completion of process of medicated oil) appeared, namely by taking the Kalka and rolling it between the fingers, a varti was formed. It was put on the fire and no crackling sound was produced. This is characteristic test for Tail Paka. Then, the vessel was taken out from the stove, and the contents were filtered through a double-layered clean muslin cloth. 450 ml of Arka Taila was obtained, and it was stored in a clean, dry air tight glass container after self-cooling.

Preparation of Murchita Arka Taila

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Bibhitak (Terminalia bellirica), Mustak (Cyperus rotundus), Dadimbeej (Punica granatum Linn), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn), Krishnajeera (Carum bulbocastanum), Bilwafal (Aegle marmelos), Nalika (Nelumbo nucifera), Hibera (Juniperus communis), Nagakesar (Mesua ferrea), Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia) all the drugs were taken in equal quantity and powdered. Plain Sarshapa taila was heated till it becomes free from froth. Four times of water than Sarshapa Taila along with powder of all 11 herbs mentioned in ingredients were mixed in oil. It was then boiled on mild heat till the Taila (oil) becomes free from water. It was then filtered and stored. Now 500 ml of Murchita Sarshapa taila was taken and subjected to mild heat. Then, 125 g of Haridra Kalka and 2 L of Arka patra Swarasa and 2 L of water were added to it. The mixture was stirred continuously to avoid sticking of contents to the bottom of the vessel. Heating was carried out for 6 h till the Sneha Siddhi lakshanas appeared namely by taking the Kalka and rolling it between the fingers, a Varti was formed. It was put on the fire, and no crackling sound was produced. Then, the vessel was taken out from the stove, and the contents were filtered through a double-layered clean muslin cloth. 420 ml of Arka Taila was obtained, and it was stored in a clean, dry air tight glass container after self-cooling [Figure 2]. The samples of plain Taila and Murchita Taila were subjected for the analysis as per the references available in the protocol for testing published by CCRAS.
Figure 2: Murchana drugs and step wise formation of Ark Tail

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  Discussion Top


Viscosity is a property of a liquid, which is closely related to the resistance to flow [Table 1]. If viscosity of oil is increased, the rate of absorption decreases. Viscosity of Murchita Taila is 204.6 and Amurchita Tail is 207.2. Murchita Ark Taila is less viscous, which means its rate of absorption is rapid and absorbs into the skin in better and fast in comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila.
Table 1: Results of Amurchita and Murchita Ark Taila

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The presence of dissolved substances in Sneha is expected to change its specific gravity. Hence, it is considered to be an important parameter for analyzing medicated Sneha. This helps us to access the molecular information in a noninvasive way. In this study, the solvent is Taila and the solute refers to extraction of active principles from the Taila. The specific gravity of Murchita Ark Taila is slightly higher in comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila which indicates the extraction of active principles during Murchana process.

Refractive index is an intrinsic property; hence, it is used in determining the identity and purity of a substance. The consistency of the media and solutes present in the media brings the difference in the refractive index. Hence, it is an important parameter for differentiating the Snehas. There is no difference in the refractive index value of both samples.

The acid value indicates the free fatty acids in the oil sample. The free fatty acid is responsible for Rancidity of the compound. Higher the free fatty acid makes them more rancid. Less percentage of free fatty acid or no free fatty acids lowers the chance of the rancidity of the compound. The acid value of Murchita Ark Taila is less in comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila which means Murchita Ark Taila has less chance of rancidity, thus has increased life span and therapeutic value. Hence, Murchana process might be the reason for prerequisite for all oily formulations.

Peroxide value is a measurement of number of milli-equivalents of active oxygen that expresses the amount of peroxide contained in 1000 g of substance. Peroxide value signifies the percentage of oxidation of Taila. It helps us to find the stability of the sample. If the peroxide value is more, it shows more oxidation and chances of attaining rancidity is also more. The peroxide value of Murchita Ark Taila is less which indicates that it is more stable in the comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila.

Iodine value is an identification measure of degree of unsaturation in oil. The iodine gets incorporated into fatty acid chain wherever double bonds exist. Hence, the measure of iodine absorbed by an oil gives the degree of unsaturation, i.e., rancidification. Iodine value is inversely proportional to shelf-life of Taila. Therefore, the shelf-life of oil will reduce with the increment in iodine value. The iodine value of Murchita Ark Taila is less in the comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila.

The saponification value is the number of mg of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize fatty acids, resulting from the complete hydrolysis of 1 g of oil. High saponification value indicates the presence of fatty acids of low-molecular weight (molecules are in simple form). Low saponification value indicates that the molecules are in the complex form. Medicated oil with high saponification value has a better absorption. The saponification value of Murchita Ark Taila is high which indicates that it is easily absorbed and digested in the comparison of Amurchita Ark Taila.


  Conclusion Top


From the above discussions, it may be concluded that due to the drugs used in Murchana process various active components were incorporated into Murchita Ark Taila which increases its shelf life. Furthermore, water and fat soluble extractives were added to the Murchita Ark Taila. Heating of Taila during Murchana process reduces the degree of saturation of Taila and enhances degree of unsaturation which is beneficial for human health. Hence, the medicated Taila should be prepared by taking the Murchana process which increases the therapeutic and shelf life of Taila.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Kaviraj Shri Govind Das Sen, Bhaishajya Ratnavali edited with Siddiprada Hindi commentary by Prof. Siddhinandan Mishra. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Publication; 2015. p. 207.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ubale J, Wanjari A, Rathi R, Rajput D. Pharmaceutico-analytcal study of Shrungatakadi Taila using the concept of Taila Murchana (oil processing). J Res Tradit Med 2017;3:37-42.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sharangdhara, MadhyamKhand 9/156. Sharangdhara, Sharangadhara Samhita edited with Jiwan Prasad Hindi commentary by Dr. Smt. Shailaja Srivastava. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Publication; 1998. p. 228.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Brahmananda T, editor. Agniveśh. (1st ed. 1983) Hindi Commentary on Caraka Samhita of Agnivesh Elaborated by Caraka and Drdhabala. Chikitsa Sthan, Kushthachikitsia Adhaya. Ch. 7/25, 26, Vol. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2017. p. 305.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Singh N.ChaudharyA.A. comparative review study of Sneha Kalpana (Paka) vis-a-vis-liposome, Ayu 2011,32:103-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sharangdhara, MadhyamKhand 9/19. Sharangdhara, Sharangadhara Samhita edited with Jiwan Prasad Hindi Commentary by Dr. Smt. Shailaja Srivastava. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Publication; 1998. p. 218.  Back to cited text no. 6
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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