• Users Online: 442
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 287-292

Quality assessment of water stored in vessels made of different materials


1 Department of Swasthavritta, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Shri B.M. Kankanawadi Ayurveda College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Dravyaguna, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Shri B.M. Kankanawadi Ayurveda College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission17-Feb-2021
Date of Decision12-May-2021
Date of Acceptance16-May-2021
Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Sanjeev Shivappa Tonni
Department of Swasthavritta, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Shri. B M K Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi - 590 003, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_51_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: There can be no state of positive health and wellbeing without a good quality of water. Ayurveda explains many techniques for water purification which are easy to use, economical, and can be easily applied with household resources. Methods: Vessels made of brass, copper, stainless steel and earthen pot were used for the purpose. The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of the drinking water were analysed for each water sample collected during an initial time ("0" hr) and after 24 hr. Results: No change in the physical parameters of the water quality is observed in all vessels from initial "0" hr to after 24 hr. Absence of total fungal count is observed in water stored in three vessels, i.e., copper, earthen, and steel vessel from initial "0"hr to after 24 h. The organisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella abony are seen to be absent in all the four vessels in which water is stored from initial "0" h to 24 h. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study reveal that the quality of water stored in copper is better than others.

Keywords: Effect of vessels on storage, traditional storage methods, water analysis


How to cite this article:
Jiddimani SR, Tonni SS, Vedantam G. Quality assessment of water stored in vessels made of different materials. J Ayurveda 2021;15:287-92

How to cite this URL:
Jiddimani SR, Tonni SS, Vedantam G. Quality assessment of water stored in vessels made of different materials. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 27];15:287-92. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/4/287/332607




  Introduction Top


Water quality is a growing concern throughout the world. Water is considered to be potable when there are no levels of chemicals substances that would cause harm to human health. The most serious water pollutants in terms of human health worldwide are pathogenic organisms. Thus, drinking water must be free from these pathogens-viruses, protozoa, or bacteria.[1] Waterborne diseases are major causes of morbidity in developing countries.[2] Purified potable water is still not available to the majority of population. Clean drinking water is the major remedy for all.[3] In India, villages are geographically apart and inhabitants may have to walk kilometers to fetch water. Hence, it is important from a safety point of view to maintain the quality of drinking water during storage.[4] Drinking water may be contaminated at the source or during storage and contaminated after collection, either during transport or storage in the home. Drinking water may often be collected from any available source including fecally contaminated sources and stored in a vessel that may not be properly treated. This will no doubt increase the production of disease-causing pathogens and hence deteriorate the stored water further. It is well-known that a greater part of the global population consumes untreated nonpiped drinking water usually consisting of small volumes collected and stored in the home by the users. Even though storage of water has been recommended as a method of water purification, contamination of treated or disinfected water can also occur during storage due to improper handling. Hence, it is important from a safety point of view to maintain the quality of drinking water during storage.[4] One such water storage method explained in Ayurveda for drinking purposes is to store water in brass, copper, earthen,[5],[6] and stainless steel vessel which are easily available, very familiar to store water in rural as well as in urban India.

Thus, this research study was taken with the objective to study the effect of storage of borewell water in different metal vessels such as copper, brass, stainless steel, and earthen vessel by comparing the water quality parameters present in the water before and after storage. The results of each parameter were compared to the guidelines and standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO).[7]


  Materials and Methods Top


Collection of water samples

The drinking water sample was taken from the borewell water of Shahapur residential area of Belagavi. This borewell water usage was open for public and private houses. The sampling was done in the morning using disposable sterile hand gloves. Each vessel (pot) having 2 l capacity to hold the water was selected for the study. The water samples kept in different vessels [Table 1] were washed with de-ionized water before use. The collected water samples in these storage vessels were allowed to stay for 24 h and analyses were carried out at "0" h and 24 h of storage. These vessels containing water sample were covered with their respective lid and placed in a room at a constant temperature range of 20°C–23°C to avoid any contamination and the effects of light and temperature [Table 1].
Table 1: Storage of water sample in different vessels

Click here to view


Methodology

Experiments were conducted in a well-sophisticated Environmental Science Laboratory, Civil Department, K. L. E's Shri. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering, Belagavi.

The pH of each water samples was measured by using a pH meter. The pH meter was calibrated, with three standard solutions (pH 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0), before taking the measurements. After the measurement of each sample, the probe was rinsed with deionized water to avoid cross-contamination among different samples.

The conductivity of each sample was measured using a conductivity meter. The probe was submerged in the water sample and the reading was recorded after the disappearance of stability indicator. After the measurement of each sample, the probe was rinsed with de-ionized water to avoid cross-contamination among different samples.

The turbidity of the water samples was measured using a turbidity meter. Each sample was poured into the sample holder and kept inside for a few minutes. After achieving the reading stability, the value was recorded.[8]

The measurements of total dissolved solids (TDS) in water samples were carried out according to the standard methods of APHA[9] and Sawyer et al.[10] by the filtration process.

The TDS of the water samples were determined by the gravimetric method. The filtrate which contains total suspended solids was heated in an oven at above 100°C until all the water was completely evaporated. The remaining mass of the residue represents the amount of TDS in a sample.[11]


  Observation Top


The standard solution for each tested element was prepared according to its concentration and used to calibrate the system before analyzing each water sample stored in different vessels. The results were recorded accordingly after each analysis [Table 2].[12],[13]
Table 2: Physico-chemical parameters of water sample from different storage vessels

Click here to view


Physicochemical analysis

pH

Increase of pH is observed in water stored in all four vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h which is within normal limits of potable drinking water. Maximum increase in pH is observed in earthen vessels followed by brass and copper. The least increase is observed in steel vessels.

A sample is considered to be acidic if the pH is below 7.0 and it is alkaline if the pH is higher than 7.0. The normal drinking water pH range mentioned in the WHO guidelines is between 6.5 and 8.5. Acidic water can lead to corrosion of metal pipes and plumping systems. Meanwhile, alkaline water shows disinfection in water.

Conductivity

Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well water can pass an electric current and is an indirect measure of inorganic dissolved solids. It helps in determining the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. An increase in values of conductivity is observed in brass, copper, and earthen vessel but decreased in steel vessels. Maximum increase in conductivity is observed in earthen vessels followed by brass and copper. All the values are in the normal limits of potable drinking water.

Conductivity is the ability to carry an electric current. The presence of dissolved solids such as calcium, chloride, and magnesium in water samples carries the electric current through water. According to the WHO, the maximum allowable level of conductivity is 0.005–0.05 S/m. The differences are based on various factors such as agricultural and industrial activities and land use, which affect the mineral contents and thus the electric conductivity of the water. High conductivity may lead to lowering the aesthetic value of the water by giving mineral taste to the water.APHA (2005) noted that the conductivity of water is related to its dissolved solid.

Total dissolved solids

Increase in values of TDS is observed in brass, copper, and earthen vessels but values are decreased in steel vessels. Maximum increase in TDS is observed in earthen vessels followed by brass and copper. All the values are within the normal limits of potable drinking water.

TDS helps in understanding the level of turbidity and hardness of water. The desirable TDS value of drinking water is 300 mg/L. The total solids of water samples stored in brass and earthen vessels increased could be from the walls of the vessels.

Turbidity

Increase in values of turbidity is observed in brass, copper, and steel vessels, but a slight decrease in value is seen in earthen vessels. Maximum increase in TDS is observed in the brass vessel followed by copper and steel. All the values are within the normal limits of potable drinking water. Turbidity is the cloudiness of water. It is a measure of the ability of light to pass through water. It is caused by suspended material such as clay, silt, organic material, plankton, and other particulate materials in water. Higher turbidity raises water temperatures in light of the fact that suspended particles absorb more sun heat. Consequently, the concentration of the dissolved oxygen (DO) can be decreased since warm water carries less DO than cold water. Turbidity more than 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) and above being visible and affecting the appearance and acceptability of drinking-water to consumers.

Chlorides

Decrease in values of Chlorides was observed in copper and steel vessels. In brass and earthen vessels, the value remains unaltered.

Sulfates

An increase in value of sulfate is observed in brass and earthen vessels. However in steel and copper vessels, the value has been decreased. Maximum increase in sulfate is observed in earthen and brass vessels. All the values are within the normal limits of potable drinking water. Normal range is <250 mg/L. Sulfates are not considered toxic to plants or animals at normal concentrations. In humans, concentrations of 500–750 mg/L cause a temporary laxative effect.

Fluorides

Slight increase in values of fluorides is observed in water stored in all vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h. The values are within normal limits of potable drinking water.

Nitrates

Decrease in values of nitrates is observed in water stored in all four vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h, which are within normal limits of potable drinking water. A maximum decrease in Nitrates is observed in steel vessels followed by copper and brass. The least decrease is seen in earthen vessels.

Total hardness as CaCO3

Increase in values of total hardness as CaCO3 is observed in water stored in three vessels i.e., brass, copper, and earthen vessel from initial "0" h to after 24 h, but decrease in value is seen in steel vessels, which is within normal limits of potable drinking water. Maximum increase in the value of total hardness is observed in earthen vessel followed by brass and copper.

Total Alkalanity as CaCO3

The alkalinity of water is its acid-neutralizing capacity comprised the total of all titratable bases. Alkalinity of water is mainly caused by the presence of hydroxide ions, bicarbonate ions, and carbonate ions or a mixture of two of these ions in water. A minimum alkalinity of 20 mg/L as CaCO3 is recommended for environmental waters and levels between 25 and 400 mg/L are generally beneficial for aquatic life. Increase in values of total alkalinity as CaCO3 is observed in water stored in three vessels, i.e., brass, copper, and earthen vessels from initial "0" h to after "24" h, but there is no change observed in steel vessel. Maximum increase in total alkalinity as CaCO3 is observed in earthen vessels followed by brass and least in copper. All values are within normal limits of potable drinking water [Table 3].
Table 3: Metal analysis of water samples from different storage vessels (mg/l)

Click here to view


Metal analysis of water

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality include the following recommended limits on naturally occurring constituents that may have direct adverse health impact: arsenic: 10 μg/l, barium: 10 μg/l, boron: 2400 μg/l, chromium: 50 μg/l, fluoride: 1500 μg/l, selenium: 40 μg/l, and uranium: 30 μg/l.

Calcium

Increase in values of calcium is observed in water stored in three vessels, i.e., brass, copper, and earthen vessels from initial "0" h to after "24" h, but a slight decrease in value is seen in steel vessels, which is within normal limits of potable drinking water. Maximum increase in calcium is observed in copper followed by earthen and brass vessels.

Magnesium

Increase in values of magnesium is observed in water stored in three vessels, i.e., brass, copper, and earthen vessels from initial "0" h to after "24" h, but a slight decrease in value is seen in steel vessel, which is within normal limits of potable drinking water. Maximum increase in magnesium is observed in copper followed by earthen and brass vessels.

Iron

Decrease in values of iron is observed in water stored in all four vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h, which is within normal limits of potable drinking water. Maximum decrease in Iron is observed in earthen vessels followed by and copper and steel. The least decrease is seen in brass vessels.

Water in storage vessels exposed directly or indirectly to the surrounding environments such as temperature, wind, and dust may be affected in terms of water quality. For instance, a high concentration of heavy metals could be found if corrosion is imminent in a metal storage vessel. In addition, some galvanized storage metal vessels could contain some levels of lead, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, etc. This could contribute significantly to increased levels of heavy metals in water stored in such vessels.

A similar result was also obtained with metal vessels in the present study. Calcium, magnesium, and iron were not affected in the water samples stored in these vessels.

Microbiological analysis of stored water

Microbiological analysis was mainly done to check whether the potable drinking water contains bacteria, fungi, and other bacteria. Total heterotrophic bacterial count is a method which determines colony formation in culture media of heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water. Determination of bacterial growth was done using most probable number (MPN) method. The experiment was conducted in Microbiological Lab, CRF of KAHER's Shri. B. M. Kankanawadi Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Belagavi [Table 4].
Table 4: Microbes identified and their succession during storage in different vessels

Click here to view


Total bacterial count

Decrease in values of total Bacterial count is observed in water stored in all the vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h.

Total fungal count

Decrease in values of total fungal count is observed in water stored in three vessels, i.e., copper, earthen, and steel vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h. Minimal increase of total fungal count is noted in brass vessels.

Most probable number

The organisms Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella abony are seen to be absent in all the four vessels in which water stored from initial "0" h to 24 h.

Total bacterial count, total fungal count, and all the organisms mentioned above in all four vessels are absent because of inhibited action on these organisms by metals. All the values are within normal limits of potable drinking water.


  Discussion Top


In Ancient India, swarna, rajata, tamra, kamsya, and mrita paatra (earthen vessels) were used to store water. Ayurveda also highlights that drinking water stored in different types of container has different effects and medicinal properties to achieve good effects on overall health.[14]

The water stored in kamsyapatra is katu rasa and katuvipaka, guru guna, increases kapha and pitta dosha, also increases strength and immunity when used for a longer period of time.[15] Brass is different from copper and is an alloy of copper and zinc. Water stored in brass vessel helps to combat many waterborne diseases alternative to plastic containers. Copper in the brass is likely to thrive bacteria in the water than in the earthenware. Along with copper, zinc is also required for many biological activities which we get from brass vessels.[16],[17] The water stored in the tamra patra (copper vessel) exhibits katu rasa, ushna veerya, increases pitta and vata dosha.[18] Copper is an essential mineral, which is required every day for healthy individuals at a level of about 1 mg/day. It is essentially required for the body to manufacture red blood cells, thus helping in the formation of hemoglobin. Studies have shown that copper surfaces completely kill bacteria. Although studies have shown the merits of copper surfaces for their use in improving public hygiene in health-care facilities, the potential use of copper for the purification of drinking water, especially in developing countries, has not been widely studied. Therefore, the results of our study indicate that copper holds the potential to provide microbially safe drinking water to the rural masses in developing countries. The use of copper pots in Indian households is common and is, therefore, likely to be socially accepted by the people. Its functioning is not dependent on fuel, electricity, replaceable filters, intensity of sunlight, etc., to operate or maintain it; it is simply a passive storage of water.[19] A regular diet contains a variable amount of copper but drinking water from the copper vessel will fulfill the daily requirements of copper. Copper deficiency can manifest in parallel with vitamin B12 and other nutritional deficiencies resulting in anemia. Radha et al demonstrated that MPN of coliform organisms present in lake water stored in four different vessels showed decreasing order of bacterial load viz. copper vessels followed by clay vessels, stainless steel vessels, and plastic bottles.[20] Copper has anti-inflammatory properties which helps in arthritis, slows down aging, as a brain stimulant, helps in curing skin ailments, helps in iron absorption, and normalizes thyroid function. Two liters of water can supply 40% of our daily requirement of copper.Preethi Sudha et al.[21] reported that water stored overnight in copper pot gave less counts of E. coil, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae demonstrating inactivation of these bacteria.

The water stored in mrit patra (earthen pot) is said to have dhatusamyakara property, improves bala, ojas and veerya in the person. Mrita paatra has the property to keep water cool and they can reduce the water temperature by a few degrees lower than the room temperature. Mrita paatra is porous in nature as water passes through its body process of evaporation occurs and it takes away some heat from the contents of this vessel, thus causing cooling. Conventionally, earthen pot water is believed to be gentle on the throat and better than drinking chilled water from the fridge. It is a better alternative to steel, glass, and plastic bottles for drinking water and healthier too.

Stainless steel is man-made so they don't have any healing power in them. Steel among all these is slightly encouraging to bacteria to multiply though not very significant. Drinking water stored in a steel vessel has no such benefits when compare to other vessels. Water kept in steel glass is better than plastic bottles for drinking purposes.


  Conclusion Top


No change in physical parameters is observed in water stored in all vessels from initial "0" h to after 24 h. The parameters are found to be within the recommended limits of the WHO. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Fe were also measured and found to be well below the standard maximum concentrations. Steel vessel is consider to be comparatively good one to store water as much change is not seen in the values of chemical and microbiological value; however, copper vessel is more effective than earthen and stainless steel vessels in killing the bacteria during water storage. The Ayurveda describes storing water in a copper vessel overnight and drinking it in the mornings for many health benefits. Storing water in copper pots finds mention in ancient texts of Ayurveda for purification of water. Therefore, results of our study stated that storing water in copper vessels is being simple, practicable cheap, and better, so it is therefore recommended for use.

Financial support and sponsorship

The project has been selected under SPiCE scheme and funded by VGST, Department of IT, Government of Karnataka.

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Sarsan S. Effect of storage of water in different metal vessels on coliforms. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2013;2:24-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
WHO. The Right to Water. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Incorporating 1st and 2nd Addenda. 3rd ed., Vol. 1. Geneva: WHO; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
WHO. Water Series. Geneva: AITBS Publishers; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
UN, UNICEF. Water for Life Making it Happen. Geneva: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana, Annapanavidhiadhyaya, 27th Chapter/198. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echaraka. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bhavaprakash, Purvakhanda, Varivarga, 6th Chapter/4,5,6,7. Available from: http://http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/e-Nighantu/bhavaprakashanighantu. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthana, Dravadravyavidhiadhyaya, 45th Chapter/13. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Rahmanian N, Bt Ali SH, Homayoonfard M, Ali NJ, Rehan M, Sadef Y, et al. Analysis of physiochemical parameters to evaluate the drinking water quality in the state of Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2015, Article ID 716125; 2015:110.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sawyer CN, McCarty PL, Parkin GE. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1994.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Khanna DR, Bhutiani R. Laboratory Manual of Water and Wastewater Analysis. Delhi: Daya Publishing House; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Govt. of India. Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, Second Edition, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization. New Delhi: Ministry of Works and Housing; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Majesty D, Chioma A, Benjamin A, Chijioke N, Humphrey N. Effect of different storage vessels on water quality. Glob Res J Sci 2013;2:913.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ali Khan M, Yaqoob S. Inhibitory effects of copper on bacterial and fungal growth. Int J Med Res Rev [Internet]. 2017;5:466-71. Available from: https://ijmrr.medresearch.in/index.php/ijmrr/article/view/867. [cited 2021 Nov 19].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthana, Dravadravyavidhiadhyaya, 45th Chapter/13. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Dutta NK. Water Analysis. Guwahati: EBH Publishers (India); 2011.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Dollwet HH, Sorenson JR. Historic uses of copper compounds in medicine. Trace Element Med 1985;2:80-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Dick RJ, Wray JA, Johnston HN. A Literature and Technology Search on the Bacteriostatic and Sanitizing Properties of Copper and Copper Alloy Surfaces. Phase 1 Final Report, INCRA Project 212, June 29, 1973; Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Espírito Santo C, Lam EW, Elowsky CG, Quaranta D, Domaille DW, Chang CJ, et al. Bacterial killing by dry metallic surfaces. App Environ Microbiol 2011;77:794-802.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Radha R, Susheela P. Comparative microbiological analysis of water stored in different storage vessels. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2015;6:121-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
PreethiSudha VB, Ganesan S, Pazhani GP, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Venkatasubramanian P. Storing drinking-water in copper pots kills contaminating diarrheagenic bacteria. J Health Popul Nutr 2012;30:17-21.  Back to cited text no. 21
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Observation
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed162    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded28    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]