• Users Online: 487
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 293-298

Moringa oleifera lam. a drug with ayurvedic and biomedicine approaches


Department of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission29-Sep-2020
Date of Decision15-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance25-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Sarvesh Kumar Singh
Department of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_159_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Objectives: Moringa oleifera Lam. (FamilyMoringaceae) is indigenous to sub-Himalayan tract and is commonly grown across the country. Numerous uses are mentioned in classics which revealed that the whole plant or its specific parts has been utilized as Sothahara (~decrease edema, Kusthaghana (~skin disease), Jawaraghana (~fever), Krimighana (Antihelmenthic) etc. Researches has been done on the potency of this plant which discloses activities of the extract and isolated molecules of this plant without any toxic effects such as antibacterial, antihelminthic, antifungal, antifertility, anticancer, antioxidant, hepato-protective, anti-arthritic, diuretic, antiviral etc. activities. Many phytochemicals have been also isolated from the different parts of this plant. The main objective of the present work is to highlight the potency of this plant as antibacterial antihelminthic, antifungal, antifertility, anticancer, antioxidant, hepato-protective, anti- arthritic, diuretic, antiviral etc. activities. Data Source: Ayurvedic texts, research journals and database. Review Methods: The Ayurvedic texts were scrutinized for the drug description and the recent researches from the journal and database were studied. Results: Present study revealed that there are numerous traditional uses, and evidences of pharmacological potency additionally the present review also illustrates its phytochemical profile, comparison between Ayurvedic and bio medicinal uses, which will be helpful for future researchers. Conclusion: But still it is underutilized established medicinal plant because its huge potentials are still uncovered like as in classical text property of this plant is stated as Grabhastravahara (Antiabortic) but in biomedicine research done which disclose abortifacient activity, for that reason there is demand for further research which based on its phytotherapeutical importance.

Keywords: Ayurvedic herbal drug, Moringa oleifera Lam., Shigru


How to cite this article:
Singh SK, Rajoria K, Kushal A, Dadhich S. Moringa oleifera lam. a drug with ayurvedic and biomedicine approaches. J Ayurveda 2021;15:293-8

How to cite this URL:
Singh SK, Rajoria K, Kushal A, Dadhich S. Moringa oleifera lam. a drug with ayurvedic and biomedicine approaches. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 27];15:293-8. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/4/293/332599




  Introduction Top


Moringa oleifera Lam. (Family Moringaceae) is indigenous to the sub-himalayan tract and is commonly grown across the country [Vernacular names[1] of this plant are stated in Supplementary File 1]. In classical Ayurveda text, Acharyas have been stated this plant by different names such as Shigru, Akshiva, Mochaka, Shobhanjana, Krishnagandha, Tikshnagandha, Ghanachchhada, Bahalapallava, Tikshnamula, Bahumula, Murangi, Mulakaparni, Vidradhighna, and Haritashaka.[2] [Properties of this plant which mentioned in Ayurvedic classics given in Supplementary File 2]. According to the properties of this plant, it pacifies and subdues disease produced by Vata and Kapha Dosha (humors).[3] Shigru is of two types on the basis of Pushpa varan (color of flower) that is Shweta Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam) and Rakta Shigru (Moringa concanensis Nimmo.).[4] Medicinal properties of Moringa, which mentioned in Ayurveda classics consist Swedopaga (induce sweating), Krimighana (antihelmenthic), and Shirovirechanaopaga (purification of the head region) properties. Different reviews have been published on the various medicinal uses of this plant; hence, an attempt has been made in this review to highlight the traditional uses, comparison of that uses with bio medicinal uses, phytochemical profile, and pharmacological activities of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.) plant which will be helpful to future researchers.

Chemical composition[4]

Chemical composition of different parts of this plant is mentioned in [Table 1]
Table 1: Chemical composition of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam.

Click here to view



  Divergent Utilization of Moringa oleifera Lam (Shigru) Top


Uses of different parts of Moringa oleifera lam

In classical text, utilization of different parts of Shigru is stated which mentioned in [Table 2].
Table 2: Uses of different parts of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

Click here to view



  Different Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam Top


Antihypertensive and diuretic activity

Ethanol extract from the pods, which are thiocarbamate and isothiocyanate glycosides has shown hypotensive effect.[5] Methyl phydroxybenzoate and β-sitosterol present in M. oleifera pods also showed promising hypothetical activity. Diuretic activity[6] of Moringa roots, leaves, flowers, gum, and aqueous seed infusion play a complementary role to lower the blood pressure.

Antibacterial and antifungal activity

Pterygospermine (from the roots and leaves) has powerful antibacterial and fungicidal effects.[7] The bark extract has been shown to possess antifungal activity,[8] while the juice from the stem bark showed antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The seeds found to have antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria cells.[9] Furthermore, the seeds can inhibit bacteriophage replication.[10]

Antitumor and anticancer activity

Niaziminin (a thiocarbamate from the leaves) shows restraint on tumor-promoter-induced Epstein–Barr virus activation.[11]

Cholesterol lowering activity

β-sitosterol (from leaves) has a significant reduction in cholesterol in the serum of rats which fed with high fat diet. Its fruit was found to decrease lipid profile in hypercholesteremic rabbits and increase fecal cholesterol excretion.[12]

Antispasmodic activity review

4-[α-[L-rhamnosyloxy] benzyl]-o-methylthiocarbamate (trans) in the ethanol extract of leaves shows antispasmodic activity, which forms the basis for its traditional use in diarrhea.[13]

Antiulcer and hepatoprotective activity

Aqueous leaf extracts possessed antiulcer effect. The aqueous and alcohol extracts of flowers have quercetin, a well-known flavonoid, which may have a significant hepatoprotective effect.[14]

Antiparasitic activity

M. oleifera gum was being used as an anti-filarial agent. In vitro activity of M. oleifera had shown some anti-protozoan activity.[15] Water extract was known to have larvicidal, pupicidal as well as adult mosquito killer properties against the Culex quinquefasciatus. The ethanolic extracts of the plant were used at the various concentrations causing paralysis and death of the worms.

Uterotonic activity

The extract produced rapid and concentration-dependent contractile effect on buffalo myometrial strips and the EC50 value was found to be 27.35 μg/ml. Atropine (10-6-10-5M), chlorpheneramine (1 μg/ml), promethazine (10-6 M), and prazosin (10-5-10-4M) produced either complete or partial inhibitory effect on the extract (250 μg/ml)-induced myometrial contraction.[16] However, physostigmine (0.2 μM) and indomethacin (10-5 M) failed to produce any excitatory or inhibitory effect on MOFE (M. oleifera flower extract)-induced myometrial contractility. Based on our findings, it may be inferred that MOFE possesses promising uterotonic potential.

Central nervous system activity

Rat model having Alzheimer's disease (induced by intracerebroverticle infusion of colchicines) showed that ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves can provide the protection against monoaminergic deficits associated with Alzheimer.[17] Methanolic root extract showed dose-dependent central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect,[18] but also protected against strychnine- and leptazol-induced convulsions.

Wound-healing activity

The aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves and ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves was found to possess significant wound-healing potential.[19]

Antihyperglycemic activity

In rats, the aqueous extract shows hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic effect.[20]

Antipyretic activity

Ethanol seed extract showed a dose-dependent reduction in the normal body temperature in albino rats.[21]

Antiasthmaticactivity

The ethanolic seed extract has the potential to prevent induced asthmatic immune-mediated inflammatory responses in Wistar rats. In bronchial asthma, finely powdered dried seed kernels were found to be great utility.[22]

Anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and analgesic activity

Aurantiamide acetate and 1,3 dibenzyl urea were extracted from the roots. By inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin, and other cytokines, they showed anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic and analgesic activity. The serum level of rheumatoid factor was also reported to decrease.[23]

Antithyroid activity

In adult Swiss rats, the leaf extract played an inhibitory role in the peripheral conversion of tetraiodothyronine to triiodothyronine.

Anti-Anaphylactic activity

Ethanolic extract of seeds of M. oleifera was reported to have anti-anaphylactic potential.[24]

Radioprotective activity

Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera showed radioprotective effect, which observed in pretreated, irradiated Swiss albino mice.[25]

Antifertility and abortifacient activity

M. oleifera root is shown to have unique antiprogestational activities which might be the reason for anti-implantational characteristics.[26],[27]

Antioxidant and antiperoxidative activity[28]

The phenolic content present in the leaves imparts free-radical scavenging property while the ethanolic fraction showed considerable metal chelation properties with the potential to protect against DNA nicking.[29]

Ayurvedic references regarding Moringa oleifera Lam

In Ayurvedic classics, Shigru is elaborated in the different forms along with its mode of administration. Acharyas classifies Shigru in different categories according to its properties. Various references regarding Shigru are as follows:

  1. In Mahakashaya – Shirovirechanopaga (purification of the head region) and Svedopaga (sweat inducing group)[30]
  2. Gana–VarunadiGana[31]
  3. Therapeutic formulations (Yoga):
  4. TailaShvetakarveerpallavadyataila,[32] Tiktikshvakuaaditaila,[33] Kanaksheeritaila,[34] Agurvaaditaila,[35] and KshaarTaila[36]
  5. GhritaMahabhutaraavGhrita[37] and SaraswataGhrita[38]
  6. Lepa (paste apply externally) – used in Sotha[39] (swelling), UdaraRoga[40] (abdominal disorder), Arsha[41] (hemorroids), Vata, and Kaphajanya Vatarakta[42],[43] (connective tissue disorders), and Kustha[44] (skin disease). Shigru is content of Vatsakadi Lepa[45] and Tarkaryadi Lepa[46]
  7. Shigru Phala powder indicated in Pittajanya Grahani[47] (IBS). Dhumpana (medicated smoke) of the powder is also indicated in Peenasa[48] (Rhinitis). Shigru Beeja powder is indicated as Pradhmananasya[49] (administration via nose) in Murcha (unconsious patients).
  8. Pipliaadilavan[50]Shigru is a content of it
  9. Edible formulations – Yavagu,[51] Peya yoga,[52] Mushikadanshnashaka peya,[53] and Yusha[54]
  10. Panchakarma procedure – Basti (medicated enema), Rasnaadi Niruha Basti,[55] and Shatprastrika Basti[56] (medicated enemas). It is also indicated to be used in the form of Niruhabasti for Apranirahana[57] (extraction of retained placenta). Therapeutic uses of all these Ayurvedic references are mentioned in [Table 3], and comparative analysis of Shigru is placed in [Graph 1].
  11. Anti-toxic activity – Shigru possesses anti-toxic activities. That's why it is a content of Kshaaragad and Kumkumadiagad[58] used as general antitoxin and Shatpadivisha (Centipede bite poison), respectively.
Table 3: Classical references along with the uses of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

Click here to view




  Conclusion Top


In Ayurvedic medicine, Moringa oleifera inhabited a notable position. The comprehensive figures provided in this review on Moringa oleifera like as its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of the extracts of different parts might be added value in the scientific evaluation of medicinal use of this plant. Considerable literature survey disclose the optimistic uses which consist antihypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, anticancer, antiasthmatic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic, wound healing, CNS depressant, uterotonic, antiparasitic, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, cholesterol lowering, antitumor, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, analgesic, antithyroid, anti-anaphylactic, radioprotective, antifertility, abortifacient, and antioxidant and antiperoxidative activities of the extract and extracted molecules of this plant without any toxic effects. Besides its numerous folk use, this review also illustrates its phytochemical profile as well as pharmacological augmentation which will be helpful for future researchers.

Future approaches

In contemporary science, research done on abortifacent activity of Moringa oleifera, but in Ayurveda classics property of this drug is mentioned as Garbhstravahara (prevent abortion), which denotes its action of preventing abortion. Hence, we found that there is a controversy in Ayurveda and contemporary science regarding the action of Shigru drugs. Studies need to be conducted with aspects that how the active compound interact with the living systems and affects the function. Ayurveda mentioned the action of Shigru in KrimiChikitsa (antihelmenthisis), KusthaChikitsa (Skin disease), Karnaroga (Ear diseases), AabhyantaraVidardhi (internal abscess), and for Aprapatana (extraction of retained placenta); hence, we found the multidimensional approaches of Shigru in Ayurveda science. Till date, no researches have been conducted on the above given properties and actions of the drug. Hence, in future, more work can be conducted to explore the action, mechanism, and efficacy of the drug.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Sharma PV, Dravyaguna Vighyana Vol. 2nd (Vegetable Drugs). Varanasi: Choukhamba Bharti Academy. Reprinted; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sharma PV. Namarupajnanam. 1st ed. Varanasi: SatyapriyaPrakashana; 2006. p. 183-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sharma PV. Dravyaguna-Vijnana, Vol.II, Vegetable Drugs, Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2006. p. 111-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sanjay Prakash and K.N. Dwivedi Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.): A critical review. Int J Ayu Pharm Chem 2015;3:217-27.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Guevara AP, Vargas C, Sakurai H, Fujiwara Y, Hashimoto K, Maoka T, et al. An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam. Mutat Res 1999;440:181-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Caceres A, Lopez S. Pharmacologic properties of Moringa oleifera: 3: Effect of seed extracts in the treatment of experimental Pyodermia. Fitoterapia 1991;62:449-50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Obioma UN, Adikwu MU. Investigation on some physiochemical antioxidant and toxicological properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil. Acta Pharm 1997;47:287-90.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gassenschmidt U, Jany KD, Tauscher B, Niebergall H. Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995;1243:477-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Madsen M, Schlundt J, Omer El-FE. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentration. J Trop Med Hyg 1987;90:101-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Antimicrobial action of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Ancient Sci Life 1995b;14:197-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sharma P, Kumari P, Srivastava MM, Srivastava S. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder. Bioresour Technol 2006;97:299-305.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tahiliani P, Kar A. Role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacol Res 2000;41:319-23.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kalogo Y, Rosillon F, Hammes F, Verstraete W. Effect of a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds on the hydrolytic microbial species diversity of a UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater. Lett Appl Microbiol 2000;31:259-64.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Martyn CN, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Harris EC, Edwardson JA, Lacey RF. Geographical relation between Alzheimer's disease and aluminum in drinking water. Lancet 1989;1:59-62.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Fatima T, Sajid MS, Jawad-ul-Hassan M, Siddique RM, Iqbal Z. Phytomedicinal value of Moringa Oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics pak. J Agri Sci 2014;51:251-62.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Singh D, Choudhury S, Singh TU, Garg SK. Pharmacodynamics of uterotonic effect of Moringa Oleifera flowers extract. J Veterinary Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;7:12-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ganguly R, Guha D. Alteration of brain monoamines and EEG wave pattern in rat model of Alzheimer's disease and protection by Moringa oleifera. Indian J Med Res 128:744-51.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Malaya G, Mazumder UK, Sumit C. CNS activities of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera root in mice. Fitoterapia 1999;70:244-50.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Ukkeri VI, Nagathan CV, Karadi RV, Patil BS. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:124-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Ndong M, Uehara M, Katsumata S, Suzuki K. Effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;40:229-33.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sutar NG, Patil VV, Deshmukh TA, Jawle NM, Patil VR, et al. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Green Pharmacy 2009;3:148-50.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Agarwal B, Mehta A. Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. A clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Mahajan SG, Mali RG, Mehta AA. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. against inflammation associated with development of arthritis in rats. J Immunotoxicol 2007;4:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Mahajan SG, Mehta AA. Inhibitory action of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. on systemic and local anaphylaxis. J Immunotoxicol 2007;4:287-94.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Rao AV, Devi PU, Kamath R. In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves. Indian J Exp Biol 2001;39:858-63.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Shukla S, Mathur R, Prakash AO. Antifertility profile of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera roots. J Ethnopharmacol 1988;22:51-62.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Nath D, Sethi N, Singh RK, Jain AK. Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;36:147-54.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Chumark P, Khunawat P, Sanvarinda Y, Phornchirasilp S, Morales NP, et al. The In vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:439-46.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Sreelatha S, Padma PR. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009;64:303-11.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Charaka Samhita, SutraSthana, Shadvirechanashtashritiyadhyay, 4/13. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, Dravyasangrahniyadhyay, 38/8 Available from : http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Kusthchikitsitm, 7/106.Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Charaka Samhita. ChikitsaSthana, Kusthchikitsitm, 7/109. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Charaka Samhita, ChikitsaSthana, Kusthchikitsitm, 7/113. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod =read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Jwarachikitsitm, 3/267. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Trimarmiyachikitsitm, 26/226. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Ashtang Hridaya Uttar Sthana, Bhootpratishedham, 5/20. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Ashtang Hridaya. Uttarsthana, Baalopchariyumadhyaym, 1/45. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Shvyathuchikitsitm, 12/70. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Uderchikitsitm, 13/108. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Ashtang Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana, Arshsamchikitsitm, 8/23. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Mahavatvyadhichikitsitm, 5/7 Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsasthana, Mahavatvyadhichikitsitm, 5/10 Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Kusthchikitsitm, 9/10 Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Urustambhchikitsitm, 27/52. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod =read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Urustambhchikitsitm, 27/54. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Ashtang Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana, Grahnichikitsitm, 10/34. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Sushruta Samhita, Uttartantra, Karnagatrogavigyaniyadhyay, 20/16 Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana, Trimarmiyasiddhi, 9/17 Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Uderchikitsitm, 13/158. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Apamargtanduliyadhyay, 2/23. Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Ashtang Hridaya. Sharir Sthana, Garbhvyapdm Sharirm, 2/56. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Ashtang Hridaya Uttar Sthana, Mushikaalarkvishpratishedh , 38/27. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Ashtang Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana, Shwashidmachikitsitm , 4/20. Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana, Bastisutriyasiddhi, 3/62.Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana., Prasrityogiyasiddhi, 8/9 Available from: https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Ashtang Hridaya Sharir Sthana, Garbhavkrantisharirm , 1/88. . Available from: http://localhost: 4001/ ehrudayam/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Sushruta Samhita, Kalpasthana, Keetkapla , 8/49, Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 58
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Divergent Utiliz...
Different Activi...
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed227    
    Printed8    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded40    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]