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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 299-302

Analytical review on influence of Chinta on Agni - contemporary view


1 Department of Kriya Sharir, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Rachana Sharir, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission02-Oct-2020
Date of Decision15-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance29-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Deepika Shivanna
Department of Kriya Sharir, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Tanneruhalla, Hassan - 573 201, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_185_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Agni is the supreme entity residing in the living being responsible for digestion of four types of Aahaara (food). Jatharagni is the chief among all the categories of Agni, it should be suitably maintained. Ayurveda suggests that there are ample of factors like Manas that affects the normal function of Agni apart from Doshik influences. Objective: Chinta (anxiety) being one of the Manasa Bhava is supposed to have its influence on Agni, article attempts to understand influence of Chinta on Agni with supportive scientific & contemporary views. Data Source: Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya, Modern human physiology textbooks and online data bases. Review Methods: The classical text books were reviewed manually and review was also done by referring various scientific journals and other databases. Results: Vatavruddhi occuring in Chinta can be correlated to activation of sympathetic system. Agnidushti & Samanavayu Dushti occurred in Chinta can be understood as decrease in activity of enzyme secretions and motility of GIT- which are necessary for digestion of food & movement of food in alimentary canal respectively. Thereby Chinta is the reason for impaired digestion of food & generation of different GIT disorders. Conclusion: Analytical review suggests that there is direct relationship of status of Manas(Mind) and Agni (Digestive fire).

Keywords: Agni, Chinta, digestion, Manas


How to cite this article:
Shivanna D, Shobha G, Pratibha K. Analytical review on influence of Chinta on Agni - contemporary view. J Ayurveda 2021;15:299-302

How to cite this URL:
Shivanna D, Shobha G, Pratibha K. Analytical review on influence of Chinta on Agni - contemporary view. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 27];15:299-302. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/4/299/332601




  Introduction Top


The concept of Agni in Ayurveda is a unique one. Existence of life is not possible without Agni. Agni is the supreme entity residing in the living being responsible for digestion of four types of Aahaara (food). Jatharagni is the chief among all the categories of Agni because its increase and decrease result in increase and decrease of Bhutagni and Dhatavagni, respectively. Therefore, Jatharagni should be suitably and carefully maintained because life and strength of individual depend on it.[1] The seat of Jatharagni is Grahani because of its power to restrain the food.[2]

Food is supposed to be consumed with complete concentration of Manas (mind) and with due regard to oneself. Intake of delicious and wholesome food with pleasing and wholesome smell (including taste, color, touch, and sound), nourishes senses, and sensory organs. Wholesome food taken even in proper quantity, do not get properly digested when the individual is afflicted with grief, fear, anger, sorrow, excessive sleep, and excessive vigil.[3]


  Materials and Methods Top


The Bruhattrayi were scrutinized regarding the references for the concept of Chinta and Agni and physiological aspects were studied from modern physiology books. Later, supportive correlation was done between Ayurvedic and modern views to build valid and reliable hypothesis.


  Literature Review Top


Chinta

The word Chinta is derived from root word Chiti Chintayam and used in feminine gender, which means thinking mind. Chintana, Chintanam are the synonyms for Chinta.[4] It has following meanings like Thought, Anxiety, anxious thought about, troubled thoughts, Care according to various dictionaries.[5],[6] Dasha Rupaka defines Chinta as an anxiety for a thing which is not yet obtained. Natyadarpana explains Chinta as mental suffering.[7]

Chinta (Anxiety) is defined as excessive thinking about particular matter. It is individualistic and occurs without the knowledge of person.[8]

Chinta as object of Manas

Chintya, that is thinking, constitutes the object of mind.[9] Thinking also includes concepts of happiness, misery, etc. Mind gets vitiated by nonthinking, excess thinking, or even thinking of frightening nature.

Pathological aspects of Chinta

Chinta in pathological condition can lead to the manifestation of many physical disorders; such as Nidranasha,[10] Kshaya,[11] and vitiation of Agni.[12]

Agni

The word Agni is derived from Agi Gatau Dhatu, which means a particular substance which goes continuously and through which perception of knowledge is made possible.[13] A substance, which spread all over universe is called Agni. Besides the literary meaning, in correct sense, it implies the agent, which is concerned with disintegration or breakdown process. It comprehends various factors concerned with digestion and metabolism.[14]

Although Agni is single entity, 13 types are described, according to its place and actions during food digestion, assimilation, and metabolism. They are single Jatharagni, five Bhutagni, and seven Dhatavagni. They function at different levels, right from Ahara Grahana to Dhatu Nirmana.[15] The number of Agni cannot be counted as each of the body substance has its own Agni.

Gastrointestinal tract

The alimentary tract provides the body with a continual supply of water, electrolytes, vitamins, and nutrients. To achieve this it requires (1) movement of food through the alimentary tract; (2) secretion of digestive juices and digestion of the food; (3) absorption of water, various electrolytes, vitamins, and digestive products; (4) circulation of blood through gastrointestinal organs to carry away the absorbed substances; and (5) control of all these functions by local, nervous, and hormonal systems.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has a nervous system of its own called the enteric nervous system. It lies entirely in the wall of the gut, beginning in the esophagus and extending all the way to the anus. This highly developed enteric nervous system is especially important in controlling gastrointestinal movements and secretion. The enteric nervous system is composed mainly of two plexuses, (1) an outer plexus lying between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, called the myenteric plexus or Auerbach's plexus, and (2) an inner plexus, called the submucosal plexus or Meissner's plexus, that lies in the submucosa. The myenteric plexus controls mainly the gastrointestinal movements, and the submucosal plexus controls mainly gastrointestinal secretion and local blood flow.

Autonomic control of the gastrointestinal tract

Stimulation of parasympathetic nerves causes general increase in activity of the entire enteric nervous system. This in turn enhances activity of most gastrointestinal functions. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system inhibits activity of the GIT, causing many effects opposite to those of the parasympathetic system. It exerts its effects in two ways: (1) To a slight extent by the direct effect of secreted norepinephrine to inhibit intestinal tract smooth muscle (except the mucosal muscle, which it excites) and (2) to a major extent by an inhibitory effect of norepinephrine on the neurons of the entire enteric nervous system.[16]


  Discussion Top


Excessive thinking about particular matter is called as Chinta. In day to day life people come across one or other form of Anxiety or Stress. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone called as "stress hormone," which is secreted by the adrenal glands during stress. Cortisol secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland commonly referred to as the HPA axis. HPA axis activates the sympathetic nervous system and the stress response. During the stress response, cortisol aids in moving blood flow towards the brain, large muscles, and limbs rather than towards the digestive tract. Therefore our body is not concerned with digestion and actually suppresses it in this mode. On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system stimulates the rest and digests response.[17]

Activation of sympathetic system during anxiety can be correlated to VataVruddhi as seen in Chinta.[18] Involvement of Pranavata may be considered due to its location being head and having its influence on Chitta (Mind). Sympathetic system stimulation leads to inhibition of enteric nervous system. It is the Samanavayu Dusti which we are seeing in Chinta. Samanavayu which is having seat near the Agni aids in the exhibition of normal function of Agni. It helps in movement, digestion, and assimilation of Ahara (food).[19] So proper functioning of Vata along with Agni plays a very important role in digestion of food.

So in Chinta due to Dusti of Agni and Samanavayu food is not digested properly leading to Ama [Figure 1]. It is well supported as due to inhibition of enteric nervous system-GIT motility, secretion and action of enzymes is inhibited leading in improper digestion in anxiety [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Flow chart no. I - Influence of Chinta on Agni Dusti

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Figure 2: Flow chart no. II - Influence of anxiety on digestion

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  Conclusion Top


Vatavruddhi occuring in Chinta can be correlated to activation of sympathetic system. Agnidushti and Samanavayu Dushti occurred in Chinta can be understood as decrease in activity of enzyme secretions and motility of GIT-which are necessary for digestion of food and movement of food in alimentary canal respectively. Thereby Chinta is the reason for impaired digestion of food and generation of different GIT disorders. The influence of Chinta on Agni is well studied with supportive contemporary views.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Charak Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. Grahani Dosh Achikitsa Adyaya, 15/4. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. Grahani Dosh Achikitsa Adyaya, 15/56. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Vimana Sthana. Trividha Kukshiya Vimanam, 2/9. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Raja Radha Kanta Deva. Shabda Kalpadruma. Part 2, Reprint 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 1967. p. 451.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sir Monier Monier –Williams. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Reprint ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Private Limited; 1997. p. 398.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Vaman Shivaram Apte. The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 13th Reprint. Delhi: Maotilalbanarsidass Publishers Private Limited; 2012. p. 209.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Swami Sada Shiva Tirtha. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ayurveda. 1st ed. New Delhi: Chaukhambha Publications; 2011. P. 195.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Upadyaaya G. Ayurvedia Manasaroga Chikitsa. Reprint ed. Varanasi, India: Chaukambha Surabharathi Prakashana; 2000. p. 52-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana. Indriyo Pak Ramaniyam Adyayam, 8/16. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana. Astouninditiyam Adyayam, 21/55. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Sutrasthana. Kiyantashirasheeya Adyaya, 17/76-77. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Vimanasthana. Trividha Kukshiya Vimanama Adyaya, 2/9. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Sastry H. Amarakosha of Amarasimha. 4th ed. Varanasi: Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthana; 2001. p. 28.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Sreekumar T. Principles of Ayurveda Explained in Dexterous Verse Astangahrdaya Vaghbhata. Sutrasthana-I. 5th ed. Kerala: Publication Department Harishree Hospital; 2015. p. 29.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Ibidem, Charak Samhita, Chikitsasthana. Grahani Dosha Chikitsa Adyaya, 15/1315. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Guyton AC. Guyton Textbook of Medical Physiology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.; 1991. p. 689-92.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Brummer H. Stress, Cortisol and the Digestive System-Starkel Nutrition. Available from: https://www.starkelnutrition.com.Seattle: StarkelNutrition; 2020. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 29]. Available from: https://www.starkelnutrition.com/2019/stress-cortisol-digestive-system/. [Last accessed on 2021 Nov 11].  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Chakrapani on Charakasamhita, Sutrasthana, Dheergan Jeevitiya Adhyaya, 1/44. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Cheriya V, Namboodiri N. Astanga Hrudaya Samhita with Shashilekha Commentary of Indu of Vaghbhatacharya, Sutrasthana; Doshabediyaadyaya. 1st ed., Ch. 12., Ver. 8. Varanasi: Chowkambha Krishnadas Academy; 2007. p. 74.  Back to cited text no. 19
    


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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Literature Review
Discussion
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