• Users Online: 521
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 303-310

Agrochemical exposure and its adverse effects on pregnancy with the importance of preconceptional detoxification and management through ayurveda

1 Department of Prasuti Tantra, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Dravyaguna, Shri Krishna Ayurvedic Medical College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission03-Oct-2020
Date of Decision26-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance02-Nov-2020
Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Ayush Kumar Garg
C/o B.L.Guru, 9/434, Balu Goma Gali, Agra Gate, Ajmer - 305 001, Rajasthan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_189_20

Rights and Permissions

Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy and to newly born baby with its possible management and preconceptional care through Ayurveda. Data Source: We visited Hisar, Sirsa, Faridabad, and Bhivani cities of Haryana state and interviewed some pregnant ladies and farmers who were in direct contact with pesticide in agriculture or pesticide industries; collected information and assessed its effect on their body. Data were collected from the related websites, conference proceedings, scientific or technical reports, and other documents from the Government of India to identify the relevant information. The detoxification methodology was adopted from the classical text books of Ayurveda and research articles. Review Methods: It is a descriptive literature review-related study. Results: The detail analysis suggests that the pregnant women have greater vulnerability to chemicals, however, may include toxic elements in diet poses health risks to both mother and child. Exposure to pesticides during pregnancy impairs growth and neurodevelopment of growing fetus. There are lot of opportunities can be explored through Panchkarma and medicinal plants described in Ayurveda for preconceptional detoxication Vishghna plants (antitoxic herbs) can prove to be a mile stone for detoxification. Conclusion: This study provides the advantages of detoxification before conception. It will be helpful in causing awareness among the masses about the harmful effects of pesticides exposure and the benefits of Ayurveda for detoxification.

Keywords: Ayurveda, maternal health, Panchakarma, pesticides, toxicity, vishghna dravya

How to cite this article:
Chouhan P, Garg AK. Agrochemical exposure and its adverse effects on pregnancy with the importance of preconceptional detoxification and management through ayurveda. J Ayurveda 2021;15:303-10

How to cite this URL:
Chouhan P, Garg AK. Agrochemical exposure and its adverse effects on pregnancy with the importance of preconceptional detoxification and management through ayurveda. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 27];15:303-10. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2021/15/4/303/332602

  Introduction Top

Agrochemical refers to the broad range of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides, insecticides, synthetic fertilizers, fungicides, and other chemical growth agents. Pesticides are broadly utilized as a part of agricultural production to counteract or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens with an end goal to reduce or eliminate yield losses and keep up high product quality. Despite their popularity and broad utilization of pesticides, some serious concerns about health risks arising from residues in food and drinking water for the general population.[1] These elements play an important role in the collection of toxins inside the body. The human body cannot dispose of them, might be because of fat solubility and limited excretory capacity. This results in the accumulation of toxins causing serious health problems. Through our daily life activities, we are unknowingly exposed to one or other type of toxin. Low level introduction to chemicals that can possibly cause long-term effects may not cause quick injury, but repeated exposures through food chain and water leaching can extraordinarily expand the risk of chronic adverse effect.

History provides many examples of human activities which, when conducted in an ill-judged or ignorant manner, within a few years become a threat to human existence. Revolutionary processes have a possibility of more side effects as they are based on synthesis. Pesticides are an example of such a threat which has been present for many years in the social consciousness. The best example can be cited is the green revolution in agriculture. Abuse of inorganic material in agriculture has prompted issues such as desertification, soil erosion and toxicity of food material, and deterioration of food quality causing serious health hazards.[2]

Often, pesticide applications prove counterproductive; in light of the fact that they kill friendly species and increase the chances of development of resistance to pesticides.[3] Although pesticides are usually used to kill a particular target pest, they will also kill or harm species that are not targeting. The pesticides applied to crops might be washed into outflow or reservoir and harm fish, flying creatures, or even discover their way into drinking water sources.[4]

  Origin, Transport, and Fate of Pesticides Top

At the point when a pesticide is applied directly to a target pest, the site is influenced including crop plants, soil organisms, and conceivably people and wildlife in the quick territory. Similarly, some portion of it goes to the air or to surface waters, due to emission or drift. Once on the target site, the pesticide may "deplete" into surface waters or volatilize into the air. From the air, it may deposit on humans, wildlife, or plants or on the soil. From the creatures or plants where it was applied the pesticide may spill into groundwater. Pesticides in surface water may go into aquatic organisms and by sedimentation into other organisms that stay in the sediment.[5]

Transportation of agrochemicals and its effects on environment

Certain pesticides, which are more resistant to degradation by biotic factors (physical, chemical, and other factors) and biotic agencies (living organisms, i.e., the micro- and macro-organisms of the soil food web), leach into the lower strata of the soil, are consumed by plant roots, accumulate in the food chain, and are at last biomagnified in the food chain. There have been several reports on the accumulation of pesticide residues in plant and animal tissues.[6] The applied pesticide can be transported from the sprayed area to nontarget areas away from the crop, which thus affects not only pest species, but potentially nontarget endangered species also.[7]

  Effects of Pesticides and Chemical Fertilizers on Human Health Top

The effects of pesticides on human health depend on the toxicity of the chemical and the length and size of exposure.

Neurologic dysfunction

Several mechanisms of toxicity have been described. Oxidative damage, inhibition of neurotransmission Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and decrease cholinesterase activity are the hazards of pesticides exposure.[8] Neuro behavioral and neurological effects after acute poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides have been reported in adults.[9] Memory and concentration problems, depression, and visual difficulties have been described.[10]

Endocrine dysfunction

Pesticides may have estrogenic effects (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], methoxychlor, and endosulfan,) and anti-androgenic effects (DDT, procymidone and vinclozilin).[11]

Symptoms of chronic poisoning

Chronic poisoning refers to toxicity that develops during continuous exposure to a substance during many months or years. Repeated attacks of diarrhea, vomiting, etc., are seen. Malaise, cachexia, depression, and gradual deterioration of general condition of the patient are seen. Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, oncogenicity, respiratory tract irritation, liver damage, dermal and ocular irritation, and allergenic sensitization are the symptoms related to chronic exposure of fertilizers and pesticides.[12]

Effects of pesticides exposure on children

Children are more susceptible and sensitive to pesticides because their immune system is still developing and weaker than adults. Children under the age of 6 months are more prone to experience exposure to breast milk and inhalation of small particles. Toxic residue in food may give to a child's exposure. The chemicals can accumulate in the body over time.

Pesticides outcome on maternal health

Above described pesticides which are poisonous in nature specifically harmful to the women who are pregnant and the baby whom they are carrying in their womb. Heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, copper, and mercury which present in agrochemical affect the reproductive system and are especially toxic to growing fetus because they are not filtered by placenta from mother to child and are directly deposited in growing fetal tissue.[13] These pesticides can get inside the body by ingestion, inhalation, dermal exposure, etc..[14] Therefore, the food which a pregnant woman eats must be nutritious and not metallicious. Therefore, care must be taken by the person to avoid consuming such substances which may lead to further complications in their pregnancy and abnormalities in newly born infants.

Preconception and prenatal exposure

Pesticide exposure (before or during pregnancy) has been related with the danger of fetal growth retardation, infertility, perinatal demise, spontaneous abortion, and premature birth.[15]

There is increasing evidence that in utero exposure increases the risk of small head circumference, small-for-gestational-age baby, low birth weight, and reduced length. Significant increases in the risk of congenital anomalies have also been reported. These include limb reduction, eye defects, urogenital defects, cryptorchidism, orofacial clefts, hypospadias, and heart defects.[16]

The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program reports that three out of every four women are exposed to pesticides around the home. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the nervous system is rapidly developing in baby, so pregnant women should avoid contact with pesticides during the 1st trimester. They additionally watched that pregnant women exposed to family cultivating pesticides had a humble hazard increment for oral clefts, heart defects, and limb defects. Women living inside ¼ mile of rural yields had the same modest risk of increase for neural tube defects.[17]

Pesticides can cross the placenta and contamination of breast milk

They have been detected in the amniotic fluid and body tissues of the human fetus even during early stages of prenatal life. Pesticides have also been found in the meconium.[18] Estimating organophosphate compounds metabolites in meconium is viewed as a good biomarker of prenatal exposure because meconium begins to accumulate in the 16th week of pregnancy and is eliminated following delivery. Breast milk represents the very top of the food chain. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants have been detected in breast milk in contaminated areas.[18]

Neurodevelopment effects on growing fetus

Most studies show that the greatest risk of exposure to pesticides is during the first 3–8 weeks of the 1st trimester when the neural tube development is occurring.[19]

Exposure during brain growth has some subtle and permanent effects on:[19]

  • Brain structure and function
  • Neuronal and axonal differentiation
  • Synaptogenesis
  • Programming of synaptic function
  • Neuronal and axonal differentiation
  • Alteration of serotoninergic system.

Prenatal exposure and childhood cancer

Some studies have found an association between postnatal pesticide exposure and an increased risk of pediatric cancers such as renal cancer, brain tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[20] Prenatal exposure has been associated with leukemia in a new-born after intensive use permethrin at home by the pregnant mother. Children with certain metabolic enzyme polymorphisms have an increased danger of intense lymphocytic leukemia when presented to pesticides in utero or during pregnancy. Brain cancer appears to be associated with maternal exposure during agricultural activities.[21]

Endocrine disruption

Low dosages of specific pesticides may copy or piece hormones or trigger unseemly hormone movement, endocrine disruption may alter development and propagation and induce birth defects, and endocrine disruption has been linked to altered sex ratio, infertility, low sperm count, and early puberty.[22]


Evidence on the immunotoxic mode of action and effects is limited. Studies from the Arctic zone and Europe are beginning to give some evidence. Infants contaminated with chlordane and heptachlor had cytokine panel abnormalities.[23]

  Concept of Chronic Pesticide Poisoning is Similar to "Dushi Vish" in Ayurveda Top

Dushi Visha (Latent poison) is a unique concept explained in Ayurveda. It is a type of toxin which remains inside the body for a long time and then produces various ill effects on the body.[24] In the present era, people are exposing to various toxins in the day to day life which is causing various health problems. There are many such illnesses where treatment does not work, as it is not eliminating the cause. The ancient concept of dushi visha seems to be more relevant in this context.

Nowadays, human is constantly exposed to thousands of potentially toxic chemicals such as metals, pesticides, environmental pollutants, and social poisons such as tobacco and alcohol. The human body cannot get rid of them may be due to fat solubility and limited excretory capacity. This results in the accumulation of toxins causing serious health problems. Many times, etiology is also not known for various diseases. Hence, here, the concept of dushi visha can be incorporated.

"Toxins cannot be eliminated from the body completely, but it is destroyed or denatured due to use of anti-poisonous remedies, sun exposure, or due to its low potency. It does not kill the human instantly, but as it is encapsulated by kapha doshsa, it remains accumulated in the body for several years producing various ill effects."[25]

Dushivisha in present scenario

Dushita desh (Polluted land), kala (Deranged atmosphere) in terms of environmental contamination by increased number of industries, automobiles, etc., is expanding the temperature of the earth which is the principle causative factor for variations in the seasons definitely causes dushi visha and as a result of environmental contamination as many chemicals such as pesticide residues may be found in small amounts in the population.

Most of the Dushi visha adhishtanas mentioned in Ayurveda classics can be correlated to resources that we are using daily. The food, cosmetics, drinks, medicines, toothpaste, etc., are now accumulated with one or other type of toxic substance. However, people are least aware of this, and they even show little interest even to read the labels of their daily utensils. The alarming increase of severe diseases such as cancer, stroke, and heart attack can also be attributed to the effect of these poisons through our daily goods. Statistics of that disease are distressingly increasing from past years shows the relevance of this problem.

  • Processed foods, junk food, and long-term consumption of food with preservatives, coloring agents, and flavoring agents produce long-term effects
  • The chemical manures used to cultivate food grains are found in the food. Consuming adulterated food for a long time can become a causative factor for dushivisha in term of asatmya ahara (Improper diet).[26]

  Concept of Detoxification According to Ayurveda Top

Detoxification means removal of toxins from body, it is important for a lady to detoxify her body before conception. The average time for detoxification depend upon the concentration of metal toxicity and efficiency of detoxifying organs. It is advisable to adopt healthy life style.

Need of detoxification

Toxins accumulate over years and store in the liver, bones, fat cells and other organs. During pregnancy, those toxins can be mobilized and transferred to the growing fetus. Unfortunately, that problem continues into the postpartum period, as the toxic body burden continues to be mobilized into mother's milk. Detoxification empowers the release and excretion of toxins. In this way it is important to detoxify pre planned conception.

For those that have used hormonal contraception; detoxification can assist in restoring a normal monthly cycle.[27] Many birth defects and fertility issues find their root cause in a toxic build up/exposure of the parents. Eradicating the body of pollutants and allowing the body to achieve homeostasis promotes health and a balanced environment; this will optimize fertility; for that both parent need to carry out detoxification.

Ayurvedic approach of preconceptional detoxification

In Ayurveda, the birth of a healthy child is seen as equivalent to planting a tree, for which we need seeds, soil, water, good environment at the right time with right nourishment. Here, the beej (Good quality seed) are considered equivalent to healthy sperm and ovum; Ritukala (Fertile period) in which chances of fertilization are more, Kshetra (Fertile land) is considered as female as well as healthy uterus. Ambu (Water and nutrients) is nutrition to the child in the form of Rasadhatu (nutrient fluid), time to plant the seed refers to the proper time of ovulation and nourishment obviously refers to nourishment of fetus and mother.[28] These four factors required for proper fetal development. In Ayurveda, there are specific actions mentioned to all mankind which not only increases the chance of conception but also blesses a healthy child.

Ayurveda recognizes 6 types of body tissues in which the health of the reproductive cells of both men and female are dependent. The health of all tissues is dependent on having good digestion which controls how well we assimilate food into the body. Hence, the first step in producing healthy sperm and eggs is to ensure digestion is working well. This is achieved through a deep internal cleansing to balance the doshas (humors) and remove ama (Toxins), ensuring digestion works optimally.[29]

Panchakarma (five procedure) is first step to detoxify the body. Panchakarma combines different therapies of deep cleansing, purification and rejuvenation treatments that detoxifies the body, strengthens the immune system and restores overall balance. Panchakarma therapy consists of three steps:

  1. Purvakarma (pre purification therapies)-Preparations which have to be done before the Pradhanakarma e.g., snehana (Oleation therapy), swedan (Sudation therapy)
  2. Pradhanakarma (five fold purification therapies)-The main detoxifying process e.g., vaman (therapeutic emesis), virechana (therapeutic purgation), basti (enema), Nasya (nasal drops), Raktamokshana (bloodletting)
  3. Pashchatakarma (post therapeutic measures)-Diet and lifestyle after the detoxification process, e.g., Sansarjana krama (specific dietetics).

  1. Shodhana (Purification)-Panchakarma therapy is a procedure to detoxify the human body before starting the shaman chikitsa. There are five procedures, including vamana, Virechana, basti, nasya, and raktamokshana. Under Shodhana five procedures have been mentioned in which Vamana, Virechan and Rakta Mokshan should be avoided during pregnancy but could be performed before conception. The uttar basti (medicated enema into the uterine cavity)/pichu (tampon) with Sneha for easy delivery as given by Sushruta are also helpful for detoxification.

  2. Toxins in the body are always lipophilic in nature. Snehan is an essential process which is performed always before the Starting of shodhan karma like vaman and virechan. Due to lipophilic nature of toxins, they bind with the sneha and extracted from body with the sneha by the vaman, virechan and basti.

  3. Shaman (Alleviating Treatment)-Shaman is required when the person is not fit for shodhana. The shaman does not try to eliminate vitiated dosha from the system. Shaman tries to put the doshas in balance by medication. Here, the aggravated dosha is balanced by either addition or subtraction of doshas elements.

Vishghna dravya (anti-toxic herbs)/shaman chikitsa in ayurveda

Drugs which act against toxic substances are called as vishghna.[30]

  1. Substances with guru (heavy), sheeta (cold), snigdh (unctuous) properties increase ojas and immunity. So the body can fight with and destroy toxins (milk, ghee, suvarna siddha water)[31]
  2. Shirish (Albizzia lebbeck Linn), Tankan (Borex) produce anti Toxic effect-specific potency known as "prabhav"[32]
  3. Toxins vitiate Pitta and Rakta. Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), haridra (Curcuma longa Linn), chandan (Santalum album Linn.), sariva (Hemidesmus indicus Linn), neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss) etc., purify blood and pacify Pitta
  4. Nimba (A. indica), Patola (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) helps for vaman by which toxins can be expelled out.[33]

  Vishghna Drugs According to Charak Top

Haridra (C. longa), Manjishta (R. cordifolia), Suvaha (Pluchea lanceolata Oliver and Hiern), Sookshma ela (Elettaria Cardamomum Linn), Palindee (Operculina turpethum Linn), Chandan (S. album), Kataka (Strychnos potatorum Linn), Shireesh (A. lebbeck), Sinduvaara (Vitex negundo Linn), Shleshmataka (Cordia dichotoma Linn).[34] Sushruta described some groups of herbs called "gana" which have antitoxic properties. There are Aragwadhadi gana, Arkadi gana, Eladi gana, Shyamadi gana and Trapvadi gana having Vishnashak karma.[35]

Detoxifying medicinal plants in Ayurveda with their mechanisms of detoxification

Hepatobiliary system

Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurrora Benth), Chirayata (Swertia chirata Roxb ex Flem.), Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri Hook.), Haridra (C. longa), mint (Mentha spicata Linn.), Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) etc., having deep cleansing action on both the liver and the gallbladder, supporting healthy liver function and the proper flow of bile. Liver filters the blood and eliminates toxins from the bloodstream. Bile collects toxic substances as they pass through the hepatic circulation.[36]

Urinary system

Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.), Varun (Crataeva nurvala Buch.-Ham.) Gokshur (Tribulus terrestris Linn.), Kaasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.), Rakta Chandan (Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.) have diuretic properties that encourage increased urine flow. This helps in cleaning the kidneys from the buildup of toxins. Kidneys efficiently remove the water soluble toxins via urine.[37]

Digestive system

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica Roxb.), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Zinger (Zingiber officinalis Roscoe.), Flaxseed (Linseed), licorice root (Glycirrhiza glabra Linn.) avoid constipation as this increases the risk of re absorption of toxins from the faeces.[38]


Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook.), Ajwoin (Trachyspermum ammi Linn.), Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn), Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) are the herbs which inhibit oxidation, it removes potentially damaging of organs from oxidizing agents in a living organism.[39]

  Diet and Lifestyle Management Top

Diet is a basic key to successful conception for both partners. A good diet and lifestyle are critical for at least half year before trying to conceive for both partners. In Ayurveda, there are descriptions of numerous herbs and general tonics which can be valuable for both the partners.

Women planning for pregnancy should maintain good nutritional status prior to the conception. This will help to decrease health risks of both mother and infant. A woman must set up higher nutritional status that will essentially nourish herself and her embryo. General foods like warm milk, ghee, yoghurt, black sesame seeds, masha (black gram), mudga (green gram), honey, dates, almonds and saffron should be used for reproductive health.[40]

Good quantity of water

Getting plenty of water each day is very important for a good and safe pregnancy. It facilitates proper blood flow and ensures effective flushing of toxins out of the body, thereby maintaining good hydration level. It also replenishes the amniotic fluid.

  Discussion Top

Agrochemicals tenaciously accumulate in human being and exist for several years produced long-term effects similar to Dushi visha. Most of the clinical manifestation and complication of the cumulative toxicity of pesticides are mimic with Dushi Visha like repeated attacks of diarrhea, vomiting, malaise, cachexia, muscle weakness, muscle cramp, dermal and ocular irritation, allergenic sensitization, respiratory tract irritation, impotency and liver damage. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity are the major complication of cumulative toxicity of pesticides.

Ayurveda has a rich fortune of medicinal plants which are markedly effective in the prevention and management of the harmful impact of pesticide exposure. Herbal medications that hold antihistamine, anti toxic mast cell stabilizer and anti-inflammatory properties should be used to manage toxic symptoms due to chronic pesticide exposure. Herbs with Antioxidant property improve neurotransmission and repair of damaged neurons via enhanced regeneration of nerve synapses, so these herbs protect the brain from oxidative damage and help to relieve the symptoms of Neurological dysfunction due to pesticide exposure.

Ayurveda has many herbal drugs that have these properties and can serve as a treatment for pesticide hazards. Herbal drugs control side effects, as well as enhance quality of life. Charak described fifty mahakashaya in the fourth section of Sutra sthana. Each mahakashaya has ten herbal drugs. Out of these fifty mahakashayas, vishghna mahakashaya which includes ten vishghna drugs, play its role against pesticide poisoning.[41]

Drugs which act against toxic substances are called as vishghna. These drugs possess various medicinal properties and hence used in the treatment of all types of poisoning. It manifests due to exposure to asatmya ahara-vihara and contact with different poisonous materials. Various drugs of "Vishghna Mahakashaya" like Haridra have immunomodulatory properties, anti allergic property and also work as antiseptic.[42] Manjistha (R. cordifolia) and Chandan act as a blood purifier and can help in eliminate toxins from the body and counteract the adverse effect of Vish.[43] Suvaha (P. lanceolata) has a tremendous effect on skin diseases due to its Raktshodhak property.[43] Ela (E. cadamomum) acts as an antioxidant, antibacterial.[44] Pallindee (O. turpethum) helps in reducing the pruritis caused due to allergy and also works as an anti-inflammatory.[45] Shirisha (A. lebbeck) acts as an anti-itching agent and reduces the allergy and has Varnya property.[45] Sindhuvaar (V. negundo) has antihistaminic property due to which it counteracts the allergy caused due to Vish. The ingredients of Vishghan Mahakashya of Charak Samhita having antitoxic effects along with Raktpittashamak, Tvachaya, Krimighan, Kanduhar, Udard prashman, properties. Thus all the ingredients of Vishghan mahakashaya together help in reducing the toxins caused due to environmental chemicals.[46]

Some vishghna drugs act by prabhava (specific power or potency), some drugs act by guna prabhava (qualities), and some drugs act by dravya guna prabhaava (nature as well as qualities).[47] These drugs are elements of various anti-poisonous preparations such as kshara agad, maha agada, vanshtwagadi agada, mahasugandhi agad, dushi vishari agada, vishghna yavagu, tarkshya agad, and kalyanaka ghruta.[48]

It is evident that herbs within Vishghna mahakashaya have a potent role in the management of toxic infestation. These herbs can particularly act as anti-allergic agents to counteract the toxins. Among them C. longa, R. cordifolia, A. lebbeck and V. negundo can be used as effective anti histamine and mast cell stabilizer agent.[49] R. cordifolia also considers for improving the microcirculation aiding in oxygen delivery and detoxification function.[49] C. dichotoma protect blood cells from oxidative damage. It contains sulfhydryl groups which oxidize mercury, cadmium, and lead, rendering them water soluble and inhibiting their absorption.[50] O. turpethum contains combination of phytonutrients and chlorophyll provides a natural chelating support with evidence of benefit in heavy metal detoxification.[51] S. potatorum contains phospholipds which replenish stored fats and replace fat soluble toxins.[51]

  Conclusion Top

It is true that maternal exposures of agrochemicals in pregnancy may affect the health of fetus in later life. The expectant mother wishes her baby to grow without any abnormalities. To achieve this goal, she has to take care of her diet and alternative precautionary strategies must be adopted, which decrease risks to the fetus. Some steps can be taken by people such as reduce the exposures by minimizing the release of chemicals to the environment, stopping smoking, reduce the use of cosmetics and body creams, and lifestyle changes. This information can be used as a part of preconception planning to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy and a disease-free environment for both mother and child.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Pimentel D. Economical and Environmental cost of the Application of pesticide primarily in the United State, Journal of Environment Development and Sustainability 2005;12:229-52.  Back to cited text no. 1
Govinda B. An Overview of Agrochemicals and Their Effects on Environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2014;2:66-73.  Back to cited text no. 2
Garfitt SJ, Jones K, Mason HJ, Cocker J, Exposure to the organophosphate diazinon: data from a human volunteer study with oral and dermal doses, Toxicology Letters 2002;134:115-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Purvakhand SV. Reprint Edition 3rd, Chaukambha parakashan, Varanasi, 2010, Chapter 21 verse 32 Pg no. 272.  Back to cited text no. 4
Jerrett M, Eyles J, Dufournaud C, Birch S. Health and the environment, handbook for health professionals. Ottawa, Ministry of Public Work and Government Services, 1998.  Back to cited text no. 5
Jeong H, Forster L.(The Ohio State University, USA), Empirical investigation of agricultural externalities: effects of pesticide use and tillage system on surface water, Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics, Working Paper: 2003. Report No. AEDE-WP-0034-03. 31.  Back to cited text no. 6
Du Toit DF, Smit BH, Zuurmond T, Louw G., Laker L., Daniel E, et al. The effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study. South African medical Journal, 1987, 81: 432–3.  Back to cited text no. 7
UNEP, United Nations Children´s Fund and WHO. Children in the new millennium: environmental impact on health, UNICEF, WHO, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 8
Etzel R., Elk Grove, Committee on Environmental Health Pesticides., Pediatric Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics, 2003, Chapter 24, p454.  Back to cited text no. 9
Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Castorina R. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environmental health perspectives 2003,107, p 409.  Back to cited text no. 10
Damstra SBT, Bergman R, Kavlock R, Van Der Kraak G. (World Health Organization, Geneva) Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors,WHO, 2002. WHO/IPCS/3655-597-52.  Back to cited text no. 11
Rigau-Perez JG, Gubler DJ, Vorndam AV, Clark GG. (Centre of environment Research, Neveda,USA) Surveillance for acute pesticides -related illness, 1986–1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: CDC Surveillance Summaries, 7-19.  Back to cited text no. 12
Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. International journal of environmental research and public health 2011;8:1402-19.  Back to cited text no. 13
Sharpe RM, Irvine DS. Evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health, BMJ 2004;328:447-51.  Back to cited text no. 14
Latzin P, Roosli M, Huss A, Kuehni CE, Frey U. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung function in newborns: a birth cohort study. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:594–603.  Back to cited text no. 15
Berkowitz GS, Wetmur JG, Birman-Deych E, Obel J, Lapinski RH, Godbold JH, et al. In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference. Environmental health perspectives 2004;112: p388.  Back to cited text no. 16
Pronczuk J, Akre J, Moy G, Vallenas C. Global perspectives in breast milk contamination: infectious and toxic hazards. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110:A349-51. doi: 10.1289/ehp.021100349.  Back to cited text no. 17
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Citizen's guide to pest control and pesticide safety (2005), (EPA 735-K-04-002) http://npic.orst.edu/health/preg.html  Back to cited text no. 18
Baskin LS, Himes K, Colborn T. Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection? Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:1175–83.  Back to cited text no. 19
Slotkin TA. Guidelines for developmental neurotoxicity and their impact on organophosphate pesticides: A personal view from an academic perspective, Journal of Neurotoxicology 200425:631-40.  Back to cited text no. 20
Aldridge JE, Seidler FJ, Meyer A, Thillai I, Slotkin TA. Serotonergic systems targeted by developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos: effects during different critical periods. Environmental health perspectives 2003;111:p1736.  Back to cited text no. 21
Efird JT, Holly EA, Preston-Martin S, Lubin M, Mueller BA. Farm-related exposures and childhood brain tumours in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumour Study. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology 2003;17:201-11.  Back to cited text no. 22
Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Bruneau S, Gingras S, Belles-Isles M, Roy R. Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines, Environmental health perspectives, 2000, vol 108(3), p205.  Back to cited text no. 23
CharakSamhita, Chikitsasthana, Vishachikitsa Adhyaya, 23/43. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 11 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 24
Sushruta Samhita, Kalpasthana, Sthavarvishavigyaniya Adhyaya, 2/25. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 16 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 25
Second Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Report on human exposure to chronic alcoholism. Atlanta: National Center for Environmental Health, (3 Feb 2003). (Publication No 02-0716.) nceh/dls/report/.  Back to cited text no. 26
Cecchini M. Chemical exposure at the World Trade Center: Use of the Hubbard sauna detoxification regimen to improve health status of New York City rescue workers exposed to toxicants. Townsend Lett. 2006; vol 273(58), p 65.  Back to cited text no. 27
CharakSamhita, Chikitsasthana, Raktapittachikitsa Adhyaya, 4/13. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 11 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 28
CharakSamhita, Chikitsasthana, Vishachikitsa Adhyaya, 23/32. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 11 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 29
Garg A K, Singh A, Vishnoi H, Meena GC, Singh C., Adlakha M., Swine Flu- The Changing Scenario and Preparedness with Formulation of "Win Flu Air Freshener Gel. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2017; Vol 5(11):page14-20.  Back to cited text no. 30
CharakSamhita, Kalpasthana, Krutavedhankalpa Adhyaya, 6/55. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 16 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 31
P. V. Sharma, Dravyaguna Sutram, 3rd edition, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 1996,  Back to cited text no. 32
Vaidya Bapalal, Nighantu Adarsh, 2nd edition, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 1999.  Back to cited text no. 33
CharakSamhita, Sutrasthana, Shadvirechanshatashritiya Adhyaya, 4/24. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 16 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 34
Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthana, Dravyasangrahniya Adhyaya,, 38/30. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 16 Jan 2020).  Back to cited text no. 35
Garg A.K., Singh C., Adlakha M, Traditional Relation between Ayurveda and Modern Medicine on the molecular basis. Indian journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences.2017,vol 3(4):p133-137, Available from: http://www.ijaas.org.in [Last accessed on 2018 Jan 12].  Back to cited text no. 36
CharakSamhita, Siddhisthana, Kalpnasiddhi Adhyaya,, 1/36. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 21 March 2020).  Back to cited text no. 37
Garg A. K., Singh C., Adlakha M., Kapoor R, Role of Medhya Rasayan in Geriatric Health Care W.S.R. To Mental Health. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal {online} 2017{cited February, 2017} Available from: http://www.iamj.in/posts/images/upload/330_337.pdf. [Last accessed on 2018 Feb 27].  Back to cited text no. 38
Garg A K, Singh A, Vishnoi H, Singh C., Adlakha M., Traditional Dietary Pattern of Indian Food and its Scientific Basis: An Overview. AYUSHDHARA, 2016; vol 4(1): p983-985. Available from: https://ayushdhara.in/review/pdf/ayush_411794.pdf [Last accessed on 2018 Dec16].  Back to cited text no. 39
Borkhardt, A., Wilda, M., Fuchs, U., Gortner, L., & Reiss, I.Congenital leukaemia after heavy abuse of permethrin during pregnancy. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition,2003, 88(5), p436-437.  Back to cited text no. 40
CharakSamhita, Sutrasthana, Shadvirechanshatashritiya Adhyaya, 4/8. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 22 Feb 2020).  Back to cited text no. 41
Gupta, S. S. Prospects and per.spectives of natural plant products in medicine. Indian J Pharmacol, 1994, vol 26(1),p 1-12.  Back to cited text no. 42
Rawal, A. K., Muddeshwar, M. G., & Biswas, S. K., Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system, BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 2004,vol 4(1), p 11.  Back to cited text no. 43
Chouhan P. and Garg AK, A case study on ayurvedic management of kamala w.s.r. to jaundice, international journal of scientific research, March-2020, Volume-9, Issue-3, p 36-38, DOI : 10.36106/ijsr.  Back to cited text no. 44
Deepak Verma et All: Vishghna Mahakashaya: Critical Analysis And Efficacy In Dermatogical Disorders. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal, July 2017, vol.12, Available from: http://www.iamj.in/posts/images/upload/2696_2705.pdf..  Back to cited text no. 45
Brahma Sankara Mishra, Bhava Prakasha Samhita, vol 5th, Reprint Edition 4th, Chaukhamba Prakashan, Varanasi, chapter 48, verse no. 2, pg no.126.  Back to cited text no. 46
CharakSamhita, Sutrasthana, Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya,, 26/13. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 25 March 2020).  Back to cited text no. 47
CharakSamhita, Kalpasthana, Kritavedhana Kalpa Adhyaya, 6/15-26. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 25 March 2020).  Back to cited text no. 48
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 2011;1:p 413.  Back to cited text no. 49
Nariya PB, Bhalodia NR, Shukla VJ, Acharya R, Nariya MB. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark. Ayu 2013;34:p 124.  Back to cited text no. 50
Lovelesh G, Kumar AS, Susheela C. Critical Analysis of Charakokta Mahakashaya in the Management of Respiratory Allergic Disorders (RAD). Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2018;7:87-96.  Back to cited text no. 51


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Origin, Transpor...
Effects of Pesti...
Concept of Chron...
Concept of Detox...
Vishghna Drug...
Diet and Lifesty...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded24    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal