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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-91

An In vitro study to compare the antibacterial activity of Kaphaketu Rasa and its combination with Rasa Sindura in selective respiratory pathogens


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, KAHER's Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Swasthavritta, KAHER's Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Amrita School of Ayurveda, Amritapuri, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
4 Department of Visiting Professor, KAHER's Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission06-Apr-2021
Date of Decision31-Jul-2021
Date of Acceptance22-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication4-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
V Sreeja Kaimal
KAHER Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_94_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Respiratory tract infection refers to any infectious disease involving the respiratory tract. The adverse effect of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance are the difficulties faced by the medical profession. It is the need of the hour to identify the antibacterial potential of the herbo – mineral drugs. So, this study is an effort to compare the efficacy of Kaphaketu rasa alone and its combination with Rasasindura against the bacteria causing respiratory infections such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods: Rasasindura and Kaphakethurasa were prepared according to the classical reference. For Rasasindura preparation Kupipakva method was done. Kaphaketu rasa was prepared after doing bhavana of sodhita Vatsanabha, Tankana, Pippali and Sankha Bhasma with Ardraka swarasa. Antibacterial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and its combination were tested by the agar well diffusion method. Results: Aqueous extract of Kaphaketu rasa and combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura have zone of inhibition against both S. pneumoniae and S. aureus, which shows the antibacterial activity of the drugs. Aqueous extract of Rasasindura alone did not show any zone of inhibition against both bacteria. Conclusion: Kaphaketu rasa has significant antibacterial activity against the respiratory pathogens S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. The findings suggest that Kaphaketu rasa can be used in respiratory tract infection and Rasasindura can be added with it for an additive effect.

Keywords: In vitro study, Kaphakethu Rasa, Rasasindura, respiratory infection


How to cite this article:
Kaimal V S, Chandran AS, Vineeth P K, Pillai U, Skandhan K P. An In vitro study to compare the antibacterial activity of Kaphaketu Rasa and its combination with Rasa Sindura in selective respiratory pathogens. J Ayurveda 2022;16:87-91

How to cite this URL:
Kaimal V S, Chandran AS, Vineeth P K, Pillai U, Skandhan K P. An In vitro study to compare the antibacterial activity of Kaphaketu Rasa and its combination with Rasa Sindura in selective respiratory pathogens. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 10];16:87-91. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/2/87/349774




  Introduction Top


In Ayurveda, the classical definition of Agantu rogas is any disease caused by microbes, infecting agents, toxins, wind, fire, injuries, mental effects.[1] Infectious disease and their epidemics under the heading of Aupasargika vyadhi and Janapadodhvaṃsa, respectively. The spread of Aupasargika rogas are detailed by Acharya Susṛuta.[2] The mode of transmission of these is said as through touch, breath, eating from same plate, and sharing clothes, garlands, cosmetics, and also through sexual intercourse.[3] Acharyas have briefly narrated “Bhuta” as a disease causative factor which is microorganisms which is pictured in modern pharmacology.[4]

The frequency of acute respiratory infections (ARI) is similar all over the world however mortality rate due to this is 10–50 times higher in developing countries.[5] In India, in 2013, there were approximately 31.7 million ARI cases, of which 3,278 were succumbed to death. Kaphaketu rasa is a herbo-mineral preparation which is used in Swasa, Kasa and Pinasa.[6]. Rasasindura is a Parada yoga which comes under Kupipakva rasayana.[7] It is beneficial in conditions such as chronic and acute fever, Apasmara, Swasa, Kamala and similar other conditions. Its Yogavahi property augments the effects of the drugs.[8]

The aim of the study is to analyze the physicochemical characters of Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura and to evaluate the antibacterial property of Kaphaketu rasa and its combination with Rasa sindura in specific respiratory pathogens, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus[9] and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[10]


  Materials and Methods Top


Rasasindura was prepared as per the following method. Initially, Kajjali[11] was prepared and triturated with Vatankura[12] swarasa (Juice prepared from buds of Ficus benghalensis). The mixture was filled in a kachakupi and Kupipakva method[13] was done. After 24 h the finished product was collected by breaking the Kupi [Figure 1]. Sodhana of Vatsanabha,[14] Tankana[15] were done for the preparation of Kaphaketu rasa. Shankha Bhasma[16] was prepared. Then Sodhita Vatsanabha, Pippali and Sodhita Tankana were powdered well, to this mixture Shankha Bhasma was added. Trituration was done with Ardraka swarasa. After 3rd bhavana the pills were prepared [Figure 2].[17]
Figure 1: The preparation of Rasasindura

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Figure 2: The preparation of Kaphaketu rasa

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The analytical tests were carried out on Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura as per Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India.[18]

Antibacterial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and its combination were tested by the Agar Well Diffusion method.[19] Results were analyzed by observing the zone of inhibition on bacterial strains S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. In the present study hot water was used for the extraction of the drug and the antibacterial activity is tested in 3 concentrations, i.e., 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml.

In this procedure, Petri plates were loaded with 20 ml Muller Hinton agar medium, then seeded with S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (culture adjustment according to McFords standard, 0.5%) bacterial culture. Approximately 10 mm wells were drilled using well cutters and various density samples such as 25, 50, 100 μg/mL were added. The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The antibacterial action was assayed by measuring the diameter of the resistance zone built around the well. Streptomycin has been used as a positive control.


  Results Top


Results of the analytical study were presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Analytical study results of Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura

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Result of antibacterial study was analyzed by observing the zone of inhibition on bacterial strains. In the present study hot water was used for the extraction of the drug and the antibacterial activity was tested in 3 concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μg. The anti-bacterial study of Rasasindura, Kaphaketu rasa and combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura was studied for anti-bacterial activity against both S. pneumoniae and S. aureus [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5].
Figure 3: Zone of inhibition of Rasasindura against Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus

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Figure 4: Zone of inhibition of Kaphaketu rasa against Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus

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Figure 5: Zone of inhibition of Kaphaketu rasa along with Rasasindura against Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus

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The result of anti-bacterial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and a combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura against S. pneumonia was shown in [Table 2]. Then the result of anti-bacterial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and a combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura against S. aureus was shown in [Table 3].
Table 2: Anti-microbial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and a combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura against Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Table 3: Anti-microbial activity of Kaphaketu rasa, Rasasindura and a combination of Kaphaketu rasa with Rasasindura against Staphylococcus aureus

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  Discussion Top


Children with respiratory complaints are commonly admitted to hospital to exclude the death penalty. An antibiotic kills sensitive bacteria, but other resistant ones may grow and multiply. Many times resistance to antibiotics is experienced due to improper use of antibiotics. In Ayurveda, there are several treatment modalities for respiratory infection. Rasashastra advices different rasayanas like Kupipakva rasayana and Khalviya rasayana for the treatment. Kapahaketu rasa is a Khalviya rasayana (Prepared with the help of a mortar and pestle) and Rasasindura is a Kupipakva rasasayana (prepared in a Kachakupi (Glass bottle). The effect of Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura are well-established in case of ARIs. In this study, the effect of Kapahaketu rasa and Rasasindura and the combination of both are analyzed.

Water extract of Rasasindura did not show any zone of inhibition against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. This may be because Rasasindura is not fully dissolved in water.

Even though Kaphaketu rasa did not show any antimicrobial activity in lesser dose (25 and 50 μg) against S. pneumoniae, combination of Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura showed antimicrobial activity against the organism in same doses. It may be due to the augmenting effect of Rasasindura.

In S. aureus, the anti-microbial activity of combination of Kaphaketu rasa and Rasasindura showed the same action as that of Kaphaketu rasa except in lower concentration (25 μg). It may be due to the less augmenting action of Rasasindura against the organism. In this study, the results of anti-microbial activity of Kapahaketu rasa and Rasasindura and a combination of Kapahaketu rasa with Rasasindura against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus are established.


  Conclusion Top


Respiratory infections are also a very common cause for antibiotics to be prescribed. A serious concern is that antibiotic resistance develops when antibiotics are used primarily for self-limiting conditions, and severe infections cannot be treated. On the basis of the result obtained from the present study, it is concluded that Kaphaketu rasa has significant antimicrobial activity against the respiratory pathogens. The findings suggest that Kaphaketu rasa can be used in respiratory tract infection and Rasasindura can be added with it for an additive effect.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Tripathi B, editor. Ashtangahridayam-Vagbhata. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2013. p. 16.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Susruta Samhita, Sutrasthana, Aturopakramaniya, 35/18. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 28].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Susruta Samhita. Nidana Sthana, Kushta Nidana, 5/33-34. Available form: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 28].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shastri K. Rasatarangiṇi. New Delhi: Motilala Banarasidas Publication; 1979. p. 16.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ramani VK, Pattankar J, Puttahonnappa SK. Acute respiratory infections among under-five age group children at urban slums of Gulbarga City: A longitudinal study. J Clin Dia Res 2016;10:8-13.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Lochan K. Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2008. p. 293.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shastri K, editor. Rasatarangiṇi. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2012. p. 21, 136, 318.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Mishra SN. Anandakanda. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2008. p. 2.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Sood R. API TEXT Book of Medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2015. p. 1069-71.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Narain A. API TEXT Book of Medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2015. p. 1072-73.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shastri K, editor. Rasatarangiṇi. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2012. p. 21.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Dev S. Prime Ayurvedic Plant Drugs A Modern Scientific Appraisal. New Delhi: Ane Book Pvt. Ltd; 2012. p. 350.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Kulkarni DA. Rasaratnasamuccaya. New Delhi: Meharchanda Lachhmandas Publication; 2010. p. 170.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Shastri K, editor. Rasatarangiṇi. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2012. p. 318.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Shastri K, editor. Rasatarangiṇi. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2012. p. 136.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Kaimal SV, Vineeth PK, Ramesh NV, Pillai KU. Significance of puta in bhasmikarana with special reference to Sankha Bhasma. J Ayur Herb Med 2017;3:222-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Adhamalla, Kashiram, editors. Sarangadhara Samhita. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2000. p. 196-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
AYUSH. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part. 2., Vol. 2. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 2008. p. 160-1.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity – A review. J Pharma Anal 2016;6:71-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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