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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 185-192

Clinical study on effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti in management of Vicharchika (Eczema)


Department of Panchakarma, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission07-Jun-2021
Date of Decision09-Jun-2022
Date of Acceptance13-Jun-2022
Date of Web Publication28-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Sumeet Saini
Department of Panchakarma, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_160_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: The skin is a protective coat between the body and surrounding environment. Eczema accounts for a large proportion of skin diseases. Most of the clinical features of Vicharchika can be correlated to the clinical features of Eczema. Basti is useful in the treatment of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha doshas and even in derangement of rakta dhatu. It is a type of shodhana, in which vitiated doshas are expelled through Adhomarga, including various skin disorders because of its capacity to act over all the three doshas and plays a important role to purify the blood. As per classics, dosha utkleshana is mainly by snehana and swedana but Acharya Sushruta opines-Utkleshana of dosha's via basti. Acharya Sushruta opines basti as superior to all other therapeutic measures on account of its various action like Samshodana, Samshamana, Samgrahana, Utkleshana, etc., Hence, this study of Basti in Vicharchika may be helpful to overcome all the negative aspects of difficulty during Snehpana prior to Vaman and Virechan. Objective: To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of Basti given in the sequence of Utkleshana, Doshahara, Samshamana in kala Basti schedule in Vicharchika w. s. r. to Eczema. Methods: Thirty subjects diagnosed with Vicharchika were selected. They were administered with Niruha basti as Utkleshan, Doshahara and Samshaman basti for 2–2 days each and Anuvasana basti with Marichadi taila with 80 ml daily in Kala schedule for 9 days and assessed after 18 days of follow-up. Results: Treatment was found to be statistically significant in attaining encouraging results (P < 0.05) with respect to subjective and objective parameters during the course of basti. Conclusion: Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti administered in sequence is effective and useful in the management of Vicharchika (Eczema).

Keywords: Doshahara basti, eczema, samshamana basti, Utkleshan basti, Vicharchika


How to cite this article:
Saini S, Pujar MP. Clinical study on effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti in management of Vicharchika (Eczema). J Ayurveda 2022;16:185-92

How to cite this URL:
Saini S, Pujar MP. Clinical study on effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti in management of Vicharchika (Eczema). J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 4];16:185-92. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/3/185/357293




  Introduction Top


Skin one among the five “Gyanindriya” as per Ayurveda texts. It is responsible for “Sparsh Gyan” or touch sensation, therefore plays a great role in physical and mental well-being of the individual. Daily visit to general practitioner's accounts for 10%–15% patients having dermatological disorders and of all skin diseases, 30% cases are of eczema. Dermatitis was estimated to affect 245 million people globally in 2015,[1] More prevalent among children (15%–20%) and in adults (1%–3%) worldwide,[2] the prevalence among age group 6–7 years is 0.9% in India.[3]

In Ayurvedic science, all skin diseases are covered under a broad heading of kushta roga. Further classified as Maha kushta and kshudra kushta. Vicharchika is one among kshudra kushta. All skin diseases are tridoshaj in nature, Vicharchika being kapha-pitta Pradhan tridoshaj vyadhi and having specific involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa and Kleda (Lasika) Dushya the Sapthakdravya[4] for the manifestation of disease. Vicharchika can be correlated in modern with eczema having more similar sign and symptoms like non contageous inflammation of the skin characterized by erythema, scalling, edema, vesiculation, and oozing.

Basti is useful in the treatment of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha doshas and even in derrangement of rakta dhatu.[5] In Samhita, Acharya also mentioned Niruha Basti as Kushtaghana Panchtikta Niruha yoga.[6] Hence, for the management of Vicharchika, Acharyas have mentioned different shodhana karmas. Basti karma is a type of shodhana, in which vitiated doshas are expelled through Adhomarga, including various skin disorders because of its capacity to act over all the three doshas and plays a important role to purify the blood.

As per classics, dosha utkleshana is mainly by snehana and swedana but Acharya Sushruta opines-utkleshana of dosha's via basti chikitsa also in certain contexts, i.e., mainly in dhatugata doshayukta vyadhi as told by Dalhana.[7] Acharya Sushruta opines basti as superior to all other therapeutic measures on account of its various action such as Samshodana, Samshamana, Samgrahana, Utkleshana, etc., of doshas on the properties of drugs used for it. Vamana and Virechana are being practiced successfully in the management of Vicharchika. However, some patients found it very difficult and Snehapana cannot be easily practiced in extreme temperatures. Hence, this study of Basti in Vicharchika may be helpful to overcome all these negative aspects and may be useful.

Aims and objectives

To study the effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti in Vicharchika (Eczema).


  Material and Methods Top


Ethical committee Approval no: SDM/IEC/63/2019.

CTRI Registration no: CTRI/2020/03/023704.

Source of data

Thirty subjects of Vicharchika was selected from Inpatient Department of Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan.

Method of Collection of Data

  • Assessed for eligibility = 36
  • Excluded = 4 (not meeting inclusion criteria).


Allocated for intervention = 30

Drop out = 2 (family reasons left in between).

Completed the study till follow-up = 28

  1. Subjects was selected by simple randomized sampling procedure
  2. Separate case Performa was prepared for assessing the patient based on the sign and symptoms and eczema area severity index (EASI) score before and after the treatment and on the 18th day of follow-up (FU)
  3. Procedure will be performed under the supervision of guide.


Research design

  1. It is an open labeled, single arm clinical study with pretest and posttest
  2. Thirty subject diagnosed as Vicharchika of either sex were selected irrespective of caste or religion
  3. Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana as Niruha basti and Anuvasana Basti with Marichadi taila was administered in kala schedule 'to all subjects
  4. Assessment was done before and after the treatment and FU on the 18th day
  5. Poorva karma was performed in all subject
  6. Before starting the procedure, proper counseling was done for each subject regarding the Basti procedure.


Selection of treatment

  • Basti Chikitsa: Utkleshan basti
  • Doshahara basti
  • Samshamana basti.


Clinical study protocol

Intervention

Plan of treatment for all subjects in the following schedule:

Purva karma

On the day of Basti, the subject was prepared with Sarvanga Abhyanga with Moorchita tila taila followed by Ushnajala Snana.

Pradhana karma

Niruha Basti was given in the morning before food and Anuvasana Basti will be given in the afternoon after food in following schedule for 9 days, as shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2] below.
Table 1: Basti schedule

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Table 2: Drug combination for basti

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Paschat karma

Padding to the buttocks thrice f/b lifting both legs thrice and rubbing in anti-clockwise massage to abdomen.

Duration of Study

  • Duration of treatment: 09 days
  • Duration of FU: 18 days
  • Total duration of study: 27 days.


Diagnostic criteria

Subjects with classical signs and symptoms of Vicharchika.

  1. Atikandu (excessive itching)
  2. Bahusraav (excessive discharge)
  3. Rukshta (roughness)
  4. Shyavapidika (redness and pustules).


Inclusion criteria

  1. Subjects who are fulfilling diagnostic criteria
  2. Between the age group of 18–70 years
  3. Subjects who are fit for Basti
  4. Subjects who are willing to sign informed consent form.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Subjects with complications of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, impaired cardiac function, HIV, HBsAG.
  2. Pregnant women
  3. Subjects not fit for Basti Chikitsa.


Assessment criteria

Changes observed in the sign and symptoms and EASI score will be assessed before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and FU after 18 days with appropriate statistical tests. Assessment of severity of each of four signs (erythema, edema/papulation, excoriation, and lichenification) included in EASI score was measured on a scale of 0–3, i.e., none, mild, moderate, and severe, respectively. Moreover, using the extent of eczema in that body region, a score of between 0 and 6 based on percentage involvement [Table 3]. Using both parameters of involved body region and severity of signs EASI Score was calculated.
Table 3: Extent of eczema in body region

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Observations

In this study, total 30 subjects suffering from Vicharchika were administered with basti in the sequence of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and shaman basti in kala schedule.

  • Maximum number of subjects 11 (36.7%) lies in the age group of 18–30, 6 (20%) lies in age group 31–40 years, minimum 4 (13.3%) lies in age group 41–50 years, and 9 (30%) lies in age group of 51–30 years
  • Out of 30 subjects of Vicharchika, 17 (56.7%) subjects were male, whereas 13 (43.3%) subjects were in the female category
  • Majority of subjects 10 (33.3%) belongs to the category of homemakers and students each, with minimum 4 (13.3%) belongs service class and 6 (20.0%) belong to agriculture work
  • Among 30 subject's, maximum number 19 (63.3%) belonged to urban area and 11 (36.7%) belonged to rural area
  • Out of 30 subjects, seven participants were vegetarians as compared to 23 participants having mixed diet
  • Maximum no of subjects, i.e., 10 (33.3%) having Amla rasa as dominant of intake, 8 (26.7%) had Lavan rasa predominant, 7 (23.3%) had Tikta rasa dominance, 4 (13.3%) had Katu rasa dominance, and 1 (3.3%) subject had Madhura rasa as dominant rasa in their daily food intake
  • Maximum number 15 (50%) were having food habit of Akalabojana, 10 (33.3%) having Kalabojan, and 5 (16.7%) were in habit of doing Adhyashana
  • Out of 30 subjects, 4 (13.3%) were having habit of taking alcohol, 3 (10%) subjects were having history of tobacco chewing, and 3 (10%) had history of smoking whereas all 30 subjects were habitual of daily tea consumption
  • Twelve (40%) participants were having vatakaphaj prakriti, 9 (30%) were having kaphapitta prakriti, 7 (23.3%) were having vatapitta prakriti, and 1 (3.3%) subject each belong to vata and kapha prakriti, respectively.



  Results Top


Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical test based upon type of data such as Friedman's test and post hoc Wilcoxon sign rank test using the SPSS software version 23 (Statistical Package for Socical Science, IBM, Armonk, New York, USA).

Effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Shamana basti on eczema area severity index score

There was statistically significant difference on EASI score after the therapy across three intervals (BT, AT, and FU) with (P < 0.05) Friedman's test also showed significant result and clinically also subjects got relief [Table 4].
Table 4: Friedman's test of eczema area and severity index score total

Click here to view


EASI score was statistically significant at the different time points during the therapy, X2 = 56, P <.05. Pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxin sign rank test as post hoc) were performed with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.016 level. EASI score was statistically significantly at different interval between BT– AT, AT– FU, BT– FU with P value 0.000 [Table 5].
Table 5: Wilcoxon signed-rank test of eczema area and severity index score total

Click here to view


Effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Shamana basti on Atikandu

There was statistically significant difference on Atikandu after the therapy across three intervals (BT, AT, and FU) with (P value 0.000) Friedman's test also showed significant result and clinically also subjects got relief [Table 6].
Table 6: Friedman's test of Atikandu

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Basti treatment was statistically significant at the different time points during the therapy, X2 = 53.85, P value 0.000. Pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxin signed-rank test as post hoc) were performed with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.016 level. Atikandu was statistically reduced at different intervals between BT– AT, AT– FU, BT– FU with P value 0.000 [Table 7].
Table 7: Wilcoxon signed-rank test of Atikandu

Click here to view


Effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Shamana basti on Bahusraav

There was statistically significant difference on Bahusraav after the therapy across three intervals (BT, AT, and FU) with (P value 0.000) Friedman's test also showed significant result and clinically also subjects got relief [Table 8].
Table 8: Friedman's test of Bahusraav

Click here to view


Basti treatment was statistically significant at the different time points during the therapy, X2 = 15.548, P value 0.000. Pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank test as post hoc) were performed with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.016 level. Bahusraav was statistically significantly improved at different interval between BT– AT, AT– FU, BT– FU with P value 0.008, 0.011, and 0.010, respectively [Table 9].
Table 9: Wilcoxon signed-rank test of Bahusraav

Click here to view


Effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Shamana basti on Rukshata

There was statistically significant difference on Rukshata after the therapy across three intervals (BT, AT, and FU) with (P < 0.05) Friedman's test also showed significant result and clinically also subjects got relief [Table 10].
Table 10: Friedman's test of Rukshata

Click here to view


Basti treatment was statistically significant at the different time points during the therapy, X2 = 51.541, P value 0.000. Pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank test as post hoc) were performed with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.016 level. Rukshata was statistically significantly improved at different interval between BT– AT, AT– FU, BT– FU with P value 0.000 [Table 11].
Table 11: Wilcoxon signed-rank test of Rukshata

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Effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Shamana basti on Shyavapidika

There was statistically significant difference on Shyavapidika after the therapy across three intervals (BT, AT, and FU) with (P < 0.05) Friedman's test also showed significant result and clinically also subjects got relief [Table 12].
Table 12: Friedman's test of Shyavapidika

Click here to view


Basti treatment was statistically significant at the different time points during the therapy, X2 = 55.055, P value 0.000. Pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank test as post hoc) were performed with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.016 level. Shyavapidika was statistically significantly cured at different interval between BT–AT, AT– FU, BT– FU with P value 0.000 [Table 13].
Table 13: Wilcoxon signed-rank test of Shyavapidika

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Mode of action of Utkleshan, Doshahara, and Samshamana basti dravya

The basti formulation was made keeping in mind the action of Utkleshan of Doshas, followed by Doshahara and Shamana[7] of the remaining doshas with kalka dravya common in all six niruha basti i.e., Panchnimba (Azadiracta indica), Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Sarshap (Brassica campestris) having properties of Raktashodhaka, Kushtaghana, Krimighana, Vibhandhara, Varnya,[8] Kandughana, Grahi, Jantunashaka.[9]

Utkleshan kalka dravya when comes into contact with body constituents, it has the properties of Vyavayi (Diffusive) and Vikashi (Breaking Adhesions). It is responsible for rapid diffusion of drugs in the body through Srotas (body channels) by entering the Rasa dhatu and circulating all over the body at different levels. Because Apana, Samana, and Vyana vayu absorb the Virya of basti, Utklishta dosha is transported from Shaka (upper and lower extremities) to Koshta (middle body part). Eranda (Ricinus Communis) and Vacha (Acorus Calamus) having properties of Saumya, Dahashamak, Vatahara, Bhedaniya, Adhobhaghara,[10] and Deepana, Pachaka, Vataanulomaka, Kaphanisaraka, Krimighana,[11] respectively, helps in Utkleshan of dosha.

Doshahara dravya helps in separation of Dosha from Srotas (channels) by Vilodana (liquification) of dosha, and help in eliminating Utkleshta dosha by virtue of Utkleshana basti through Gudamarga (Anal route). For Doshahara Madanphala (Randia dumetorum) and Shatpushpa (Anethum sowa) were used, having Madhura-tikta rasa, Lekhana, Varannashak, Kushtahara, Kaphahara,[12] and Deepana, Pachana, Vataanulomana, Vibandhahara, Kaphavatahara[13] properties respectively

Shamshamana basti due to its laghu, rooksha, guru, Snigdha gunas and with Samana vata spreads all over the body, reaches Dusha srotas where it breaks down the remaining leena dosha's that are adhered to the srotas, due to its Sheeta virya, it subsides the lean doshas in their own site. Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus) and Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are used as drug of choice for Shamshamana purpose having properties of Guru Snigdha Guna, ShitaVirya, Grahi, Deepan pachan, Antioxidant, Anti Inflammatory, Expectorant, Antiulcer and Hepatoprotective actions,[14] and Sheetala, Deepana, Pachana, Vatanulomana, Grahi, Swedajanan, Kaphaghana, Kandughana, Jantunashaka.[15]

Discussion on overall effect of Utkleshan, Doshahara, Samshamana basti

Utkleshana Basti has causes the liquefaction of the vitiated dosha at the same time expanding its inclination to get removed, trailed by quickly direct the Doshahara basti in the center one, as it is having activity in disposing of the aggregation of dosha's in the body. Obviously this doshaharana basti shown impact as shodhana basti, finally at last with the end goal of Pacification of leena dosha, to make balance dosha to upset by shodhana basti to forestall the further arrangement of Ama and reclamation of ordinary wellbeing is accomplished with the of incitement of organization of Samshamana basti is arranged.

Effect of therapy

Kandu is mainly caused by kapha dosha involvement due to Swedavaha Sroto Sanga causing accumulation of mala leading to kandu and the kalka dravya's used in basti are mosty kaphapitahar and kaphavatahar, Sarshap was mainly used for kandu because of kandughana property.[10] Shodhan help in removing the sanga so showing statistically significant results in reducing kandu parameter and symptomatically also patients showed 60%–70% improvement AT and upto 90% improvement in kandu at the time of FU.

Bahusraav is mainly because of kapha dosha and basti dravya's used are of kaphahara nature and drugs like Nagarmotha and Nimba having Grahi property leads to shoshan of drava bhaga[16] present in the papular or pustular rashes, showing statistically significant result with P < 0.005 and Clinically also.

Rukshata is mainly caused by vata dosha and drugs like Eranda, Vacha, Madanphala, Shatpuspha and Sarshap have kapha vatahara properties so useful for reducing the rukshata both statistically and clinically.

Shyavapidika is manifestation of Vata and rakta dushti and the drugs used for basti like Nimba and Vidanga having rakhtashodhak and varnya properties, Madanphala act as varnanashak help in treating shyavapidika.

Retention time of Niruha Basti

On the first day of niruha basti the mean retention was found to be only 5.53 min and it increased on subsequent days this may be because of the property of basti dravya on first 2 days consisting of Vacha and Eranda for Utkleshan purpose which are more of Tikshna guna Pradhan and Vacha having lekhan property and eranda being rechan in nature leads to early evacuation of the basti dravya's. The mean retention time was 9.93 and 12.72 min on day 1 and 2 of Doshahara basti schedule with maximum time of 45 depending upon koshta also patient with krur koshta were able to hold basti for longer duration. Whereas there was no such difference in mean retention time for Samshamana basti which was 11.65 and 11.35 min on day 1 and 2 respectively. Which may be because of sheeta veerya of Yashtimadhu and Nagarmotha used for Samshamana purpose leading to more retention time.

Discussion on retention time of Anuvasana basti

The mean retention time for Anuvasana basti had gradually increased from day 1 (i.e. 4 h) to maximum on day 5 (i.e. 8.12 h) and then again it decreased till day 9th of Anuvasana basti (i.e. 6.80 h). with minimum retention time of 15 min in a patient to maximum retention time of 17.5 h. retention time also depends on the koshta of the patient upto greater extent patients with krura koshta were observed to retain Anuvasana basti for longer time because of Vata dosha predominance.


  Conclusion Top


  • All bastis are bundled in a step-by-step way with actions such as prevention, cure, and promotion of health. Utkleshana basti enables the vitiated dosha to liquefy, increasing its inclination to be ejected, followed by Doshahara basti in the middle, which acts to eliminate the buildup of doshas in the body. Evidently, this doshaharana basti has the same function as shodhana basti, and is used to relieve leena dosha, and prevent the formation of Ama. The administration of Samshamana basti is intended to bring about the restoration of normal health
  • Administration of basti in sequence of Utkleshana, Doshahara and Shamana in kala schedule for 9 days was found to be effective in objective parameter erythema, edema/papulation, excoriation, lichenification, region score and EASI score and subjective parameter like kandu
  • Treatment was found to be more effective in kandu and sraava
  • No any complication was observed during the course of treatment
  • Hence administration of basti in sequence of Utkleshana, Doshahara and Shamana in kala schedule was found to be effective in management of Vicharchika (Eczema).


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
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Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadivarga, 2/91-92. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/e-Nighantu/bhavaprakashanighantu/?mod=read. [Lastaccessed on 2021 Jun 08].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13]



 

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