• Users Online: 130
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 222-227

Sensory evaluation technique for discriminating different samples of Abhraka Bhasma


1 Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission05-Jul-2021
Date of Decision08-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance07-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication28-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Krupali Jani
Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_213_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: Therapeutic efficacy of Bhasma gets altered and its therapeutic arena increases with increase in the number of Puta, simultaneously increase in the number of Puta increase cost, time for manufacture. Classical texts favor sensory analysis for inprocess as well as product standard, especially for Bhasma dosage forms. The present study was carried out to develop quality control technique for the discernment of Abhraka Bhasma samples during the subsequent stages of Marana (comparison between 10, 20, 40, and 60 Puti Abhraka Bhasma) on the basis of color and touch feel through the discriminative method. Methods: Among the available sensory methods, two alternative forced choice methods were adopted. Result: The results were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics curve, area under curve (AUC) and d-prime (d') with the help of the sensR package at R-studio ver. 1.0.143. The sample was positively marked with a P < 0.001 and an AUC of 0.866 in color and touch of 0.566, 0.600, 0.533, and 0.899. Conclusion: The critical investigation technique well differentiated against Abhraka Bhasma samples and thus could aid as economical quality control device.

Keywords: Abhraka Bhasma, comparative, discriminative, Puta, sensory evaluation, SensR


How to cite this article:
Jani K, Bedarkar P, Shukla VJ, Patgiri B. Sensory evaluation technique for discriminating different samples of Abhraka Bhasma. J Ayurveda 2022;16:222-7

How to cite this URL:
Jani K, Bedarkar P, Shukla VJ, Patgiri B. Sensory evaluation technique for discriminating different samples of Abhraka Bhasma. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 4];16:222-7. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/3/222/357296




  Introduction Top


Abhraka is the first drug in “Maharasa Group”[1] and Abhraka Bhasma is widely used in Ayurvedic therapeutics, pharmaceutics and has been mentioned as Sarvavyadihara ascribing its broad spectrum therapeutic use.[2] Besides therapeutic utility, it is specifically used as Rasayana, for Kshetrikara (as pretreatment before administration of any mercurial formulation) and has peculiar property; Yogavahi (bioenhancement). It is mentioned to be used invariably with Mercurial formulation and Lauha hence gained prime importance in therapeutics.

As per classics, Puta given for Marana or Bhasmi karana imparts several effects in drug under process[3] such as Rekhapurnatvam (filling the crease of fingers), Laghutvam (lightness and softness), Varitaratvam (floats on water), Apunarbhavatvam (Incapable of regaining its original form), Shighravyaptitvam (Quick dispersion and assimilation in the body), Deepana (enhance the digesting power), and Gunadhikya (enhancement of therapeutic efficacy).

Therapeutic efficacy of Bhasma gets altered, increased, and its therapeutic arena increases with increase in number of Puta.[4] Simultaneously, increase in the number of Puta increases cost (drug, labor, instrument and equipment utilization, energy utilization [processing charge]), time for manufacture etc., During Marana, even after the achievement of stage of Bhasmi karana (observation of desired Bhasma Pariksha), still the process of Putana may be continued as per need or therapeutic indication or for expectation of better therapeutic efficacy and or safety. Abharaka Bhasma is mentioned to prepare with different number of Puta such as 60, 100, 500, and 1000 Puta. More number of Puta are mentioned to give to Abharka from 100 to 1000 Puta for its use as Rasayana (rejuvenating) and Vajikarana (aphrodisiac). Classical texts favor sensory analysis for inprocess as well as product standard, especially for Bhasma dosage forms. There is a need to bridge the gap in possible wide range of results of parameters of evaluation of Bhasma Pariksha to bring them precision, as most among these are subjective parameters with comparatively more variability than objective, instrumental methods of evaluation/measurable parameters. Even though there are many sophisticated instrumental techniques for analysis, in Ayurveda, there are some physical examination methods mentioned. Sensory evaluation has major stake even in identification, quality parameters of raw drugs, inprocess standardization as quality control tool as well as the standards of finished product. For the reason of association of number of repeated Puta for Marana with their cost and therapeutic efficacy, safety, lacunae in precision of most of the subjective (sensory evaluation) parameters, in industrial practice and commercial market, chances of making false claims, adulteration of Bhasma with Bhasma prepared with less number of Puta, etc., may not be denied.

Sensory investigation is a process in which information is received through human senses and collected information organized with scientific discipline that applies principle of experiment and statistical analysis to use human senses i.e., sight, smell, taste, and touch. Sensory analysis can be defined as “A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret reactions of those properties of food or materials as they are perceived by senses,” improving methods and processes related to sensory data and research analysis in quality assurance. It is widely used in food industry research, food marketing and development of food product. In ancient times, people were most frequently using their senses as quality parameter. For the examination of Bhasma, physical tests dependent on sensory evaluation are mentioned which are-Varna (color), Nishchandratva (lustureless), Rekhapurnatva (furrow filling), Varitaratva (float on water), Anjana Sadrusha, Ketaki Raja sannibha,[5] Unnam, Dantagrekachkachabhava (Granniness, grittiness), Apunarbhava (Irretrievable), Shlakshnatva, etc.[6] Nishchandratva (lusturelessness) has been given prime importance beside color in the examination of Abhraka Bhasma as chef desirable characteristic for optimum stage of Marana.

These sensory perceptions (including color and touch feel) used as evaluation parameters for Bhasma are resultant of several physico-chemical alterations during process. In Ayurvedic pharmaceutics, they are given significant importance for quality check of raw drug, in process control as well as evaluation of end product. Color is mentioned for different Bhasma in classics. Sensory evaluation such as Anjansadrushya (like collirium-fine, smooth, soft, nonirritating even upon application to conjunctiva), Ketaki Raja Sannibha (like stamens of Ketaki flower) has been mentioned for Bhasma. It is need of time to evaluate utility of these sensory evaluation parameters in current era of instrumental advancement in some of Bhasma, namely Abhraka Bhasma as sensitive examination tool for control over in-process standardization of Abhraka Marana. Thus, using classical parameters, experimental design was plotted and statistical calculation with the help of “R” software was tried to discriminate different samples of Abhraka Bhasma collected at different stages of Marana, i.e., subsequent Puta (Bhavana, incineration cycles) i.e., samples of AbhrakaBhasma after 10, 20, 40 and 60Puta.

An attempt was made to develop sensory analysis of Abhraka Bhasma to discriminate between samples of Puta. To evaluate the context of Puta for Abhraka Marana through measurable established sensory evaluation protocol.

Two-alternative forced-choice method or directional paired comparison method

The two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) test is one of the prevailing and sensitive dissimilarity examinations.[7] Used when differentiation vary in intensity of the attributes in question. Hence, sensory evaluation for the comparison of four different samples of Abhraka Bhasma was done by 2-AFC method. In this method, four samples are presented to the panelist simultaneously and the panelist is requested to identify the sample that is higher in the quantified sensory characteristic.


  Materials and Methods Top


Among the numerous sensory methods, 2-AFC method is one of the most effective and sensitive dissimilarity investigation; a look at to decide whether or not a difference exists among the samples. The difference can involve one or numerous sensory attribute. Consequently, inside the present examine 2-AFC method can be suitable for the discrimination of Abhraka Bhasma with different number of Puta.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to evaluate Abhraka Bhasma with paired comparison sensory methods in detecting differences between these four samples of Abhraka Bhasma. In addition, to determine if a difference exists between four samples of Abhraka Bhasma with regard to intensity of color and texture as the number of Puta increases.

Experimental design

Abhraka Bhasma was prepared in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ITRA, Jamnagar, Gujarat as mentioned in the classical textbook Rasa Jala Nidhi.[8] As shown in [Flow Chart 1], Samples of Abharaka Bhasma were taken out during Marana at different stages of Marana, i.e., after 10, 20, 40, and 60 Puta.



Questionnaire

Special pro forma was adopted for execution of for discrimination of Abhraka Bhasma with different number of Puta by adopting 2 Alternate forced choice (2-AFC) method for check in accordance with sensory evaluation of foods, Australian requirements.

Attribute selected

  1. Color (shade-dull, bright)
  2. Touch feel (grittiness).


Assessing samples

Evaluators were presented with four blind coded samples. In the first experiment, participates were asked to identify the sample touch from rough to smooth and write down the code of sample in proforma. For second attribute, participants were asked to identify the color attribute, they were asked to differentiate bright or dull samples. All participates were given enough time for each task.

Data analysis

Critical value table for paired comparison, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, d' area under curve (AUC) calculation methods was used to analyze sensory panel results.


  Results and Observation Top


As shown in [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4],[Table 5],[Table 6],[Table 7].
Table 1: Sample code of different samples of Abhraka Bhasma

Click here to view
Table 2: Values of true positive and true negative using confused matrix for color

Click here to view
Table 3: Results of d' for set for color

Click here to view
Table 4: Area under the curve results for set for color

Click here to view
Table 5: Values of true positive and true negative using confused matrix for touch

Click here to view
Table 6: Results of d' for set for touch feel

Click here to view
Table 7: Area under curve results for set for touch feel (grittiness)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Assessment of intellectual features is an imperative way to measure productivity and success.[9] Sensory analysis includes the assessment of preparation through organoleptic characteristics, i.e., shade, aroma, flavor, contact, and sound. These strategies contain a board of anthropological evaluators, specific and controlled trial procedures alongside statistical strategies for dispensation of the outcomes.[10] Sensory analysis is regularly applied in the wine enterprise as a habitual excellent manipulate factor. Similarly, Abhraka Bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation as source of instruction/data. Henceforth, in the present examination, sensory evaluation became positioned to use as a way to discriminate the samples of Abhraka Bhasma with subsequent number of Puta (incineration cycles). The prime goal of the take a look at became to decide whether a distinction exists among the samples. Subsequently, 2-AFC (Alternative Forced-Choice technique) check changed into chosen, as it's miles commonly practiced to decide whether or not modifications in elements, processing, packaging or storage arise variations among the goods.[11] Sensory features which is color and touch had been selected for valuation.

Selected attributes color and touch feel include multiple sensory assessment parameters of Abhraka Bhasma as mentioned in classics. Color also represents shade, i.e., dull or bright which reflects Nishchandratva. Nishchandratva is most widely mentioned test for Abhraka Bhasma. Touch feel incorporates evaluation of grittiness, granniness, softness/hardness, smoothness, crystallanity besides particle size hence represents classical tests like Dantagrekachhakachabhava, Ketaki raja sannibha, Rekhapurnatva, Sukshmatva. Color may represent chemical form, state of grinding (particle size). Marana is a complex ultimate change occurred after several cyclic pharmaceutical operations leading to dissociation of existing or intermediate compounds, new formation of compounds, oxidations and reductions etc., As resultant of cyclic or repetitive heating cooling, levigation, exposure to environment in different states of humidity, temperature and their combinations, levigation (leading to solubilisation, recrystallization), grinding may lead to frequent variations in size changes ultimately leading to particle size reduction of matrix being treated (often at least up to few cycles of incineration). Bhavana (levigation) leads to mechanochemical changes. Thus, during Marana several chemical, physicochemical, mechanical changes may result in to nature of end product Bhasma, reflecting in to specific sensory attributes.

Hence, color and touch feel as sensory attributes were chosen for the discrimination of Abhraka Bhasma samples. Four samples of 10, 20, 40, and 60 Puta have been taken into consideration for valuation. Samples units namely A, B, C, and D for each color and grittiness, d top changed into calculated to set up that human beings are able to discriminate between exceptional samples. Pattern become effectively identified with the importance level of P < 0.001 or sensitivity index is a dimensionless statistic, it indicates the discrimination among the four samples. If d' is low, then it approach that there's low discriminability and vice versa.[12] In addition, from the consequences of d', roc curve became generated and AUC changed into calculated. ROC curve is a graphical representation among false tremendous and genuine negative using an epidemiological language.[13] Each the pattern units showed a better d' fee. Thus, indicating that the samples may be adequately differentiated through color and touch respectively. However, color characteristic indicates discriminative outcomes however in case of touch feel, samples cannot be discriminated effortlessly. Color characteristic no preferred error observed in sample C and D due to accurate prediction of sample by all the volunteers.

A common technique to represent ROC overall performance is to calculate the AUC. It measures the discrimination, i.e., ability of the test to appropriately identify the desirable characteristic magnificence as proven by setting range and class for discrimination, if it's derive in range of 0.90–1 then it is considered as excellent discriminating technique and if in range of 0.80–0.90, 0.70–0.80, 0.70–0.60, and 0.60–0.50 then its good, fair, poor, and fail, respectively.

The AUC for attributes color (shade) and touch feel (grittiness) as proven fall in desk variety 3 (0.70–0.80) and 5 (0.60–0.50).

ROC curve suggests the change among sensitivity and specificity. Relation of genuine effective and false fine ratio curves shows higher performance whilst it is toward top right, i.e., Close to actual high quality that's as proven in [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7],[Figure 8]. Suggesting that attributes of samples of Abhraka Bhasma can be differentiated by color shade and touch feel with high discriminability 93% and 64% precision and 0.25and 0.34 specificity, respectively.
Figure 1: For color. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample A

Click here to view
Figure 2: For color. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample B

Click here to view
Figure 3: For color. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample C

Click here to view
Figure 4: For color. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample D

Click here to view
Figure 5: For Touch. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample A

Click here to view
Figure 6: For Touch. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample B

Click here to view
Figure 7: For Touch. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample C

Click here to view
Figure 8: For Touch. Receiver operating characteristics curve of sample D

Click here to view


As per classical claim, therapeutic utility of Abhraka Bhasma increases with increase in number of Puta. This is reflected by Sunil Bhurkunde et al. Researchers concluded that, “Abhraka Bhasma prepared with more number of cycles of Puta (10 Puti Abhraka Bhasma) is more efficacious than Abhraka Bhasma prepared with less number of cycles of Puta (5 Puti Abhraka Bhasma).”[14]

Classical text shows references of increases in successive number of Puta with increase in therapeutic utility, sensory technique may not directly affect therapeutic activity but it plays significant role in achieving upright quality of product by keeping sensory check points for ensuring quality. Good quality of finished product result in best therapeutic effect.


  Conclusion Top


Classical sensory evaluation color and touch feel can be utilized in Marana of Abhraka to differentiate stages of Marana and not only to identify completion of Marana and these parameters can be applied for in-process monitoring of Abhraka Bhasma. It is determined that on the basis of color 2-AFC technique is able to correctly distinguish samples of Abhraka Bhasma with different number of Puta (10, 20, 40 and 60 Puta) while by touch feel (grittiness) it cannot be distinguished properly. The method can be in addition tested by using on population and thus can be implemented for regular exceptional control evaluation. Sensory analysis can be economical approach for the regular evaluation of Ayurvedic formulations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Kulkari DA. Rasa Ratna Sammuchhaya. 2/1. 1st Part. New Delhi: Meherchand Lacchmandas Publications; 2010. p. 18.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shri Sadanandasharma. Rasa Tarangini, Chapter 10, Shloka 74-99, edited by Kashinathshastri. 11th ed. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas Publication; 1979. p. 231.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kulkari DA. Rasa Ratna Sammuchhaya. 10/48-50. 1st Part. New Delhi: Meherchand Lacchmandas Publications; 2010. p. 187.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Satyartha Prakasha. Rasendrasara Samgraha. 1/313-5. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krushnadas Academy; 1994. p. 188-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Madhavacharya. Ayurved Prakasha. 2/104. Commentary by Gularaja Sharma Mishra. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2014. p. 285.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Govt of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part 1., 2nd ed., Ch. 21. New Delhi: Govt of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Krupali J. Pharmaceutico analytical standardization of 60 Puti Abhraka Bhasma. Int J Ayurvedic Med 2021;12;360-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ennis DM. Relative Power of Difference Testing Methods in Sensory Evaluation. Philip Morris Research Center, Richmond, VA: Food Tech; 1990.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Drake MA. Invited review: Sensory analysis of dairy foods. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:4925-37.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Piana ML, Oddo LP, Bentabol A, Bruneau E, Bogdanov S, Declerck CG. Sensory analysis applied to honey: State of the art. Apidologie 2004;35 Suppl 1:S26-37.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Australian Standards. Sensory Analysis of Foods – Part 2.4: Methodology – Two AFC Test. Sydney: Australian Standards; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Mehta M. Sensory analysis – A contemporary quality control tool for Asava-Arishta. Int J Ayurvedic Med 2020;11:536-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Gonclaves L, Subtil A, Oliveira MR, Bermudez PZ. ROC curve estimation: An overview. Revstat Stat J 2014;12:1-20.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Bhurkunde S, Bedarkar P, Prajapati PK, Shukla VJ, Nariya M. Effect of Puta in Abhraka Marana W.S.R. To Madhumeha (Type-2 Dm). Jamnagar: IPGT & RA; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 14
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results and Obse...
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed200    
    Printed4    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]