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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 245-251

Pittadhara Kala Sahayo Majjadhara Kala and brain gut microbiota axis: A comparative review study

1 PhD Scholar, Ayurved Samhita Siddhant Department, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune; Assistant Professor, Ayurved Samhita Siddhant Department, K.G. Mittal Ayurved College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor, Ayurved Samhita Siddhant Department, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India

Correspondence Address:
Rakesh Ramraj Tiwari
K. G. Mittal Ayurved College, Mittal Foundation Trust, Next to Taraporewala Aquarium, Netaji Subhash Road, Marine Drive, Mumbai - 400 002, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_290_20

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Objective: The Ayurvedic principle of Pittadhara kala sahayo majjadhara kala (PDK-MDK) was propogated by Acharya Dalhan's commentary of Sushruta Samhita. Modern scientists agree on the existence of gut microbiota (GM) and their influence on the nervous system but have not explored it in light of PDK-MDK even though the later has formed the backbone of Ayurveda practice for over a millenia. This makes it imperative to not only extensively research PDK-MDK better but also to promote its evidence-based utilization in clinical practice. Data Source: Detailed review on Ayurveda literature (Bruhatrayi, Laghutarayi) and evidence-based resources (journals, dissertations, and gray literature) was performed. Review Methods: The keywords like pitta, jatharagni, pittadharakala, majja, majjadharakala, GM, gut brain microbiota axis, neurological disorder, Alzheimer, Parkinson were searched for our study. Result: This study reveals that the bidirectional, mutualistic relationship between Pittadhara kala and Majjadhara Kala is similar to the interdependency exhibit by the GM and Brain. Neurophyschiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, autistic spectrum disorder) found to be correlated with altered GM similar to conditions such as unmaad, apsmaar and pittadhara kala dysfunction due to low-quality food. Neurodegenerative conditions (Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease) correlate with the dysfunctional autonomic and enteric nervous system, whereas the Ayurveda concept of Medhya Rasayan that needs to pass through Jatharagni suggests relation between grahani and majjadhatu. Conclusion: While PDK can broadly be linked to small and large microflora and the bile acid and substrate interactions there in, extensive collaborative research is needed to confirm this fundamentally.

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